Tag: collection

Complete Collection Of World Facts Volume 6 (1990)

Svalbard
(territory of Norway)
Geography
Total area: 62,049 km2; land area: 62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen
and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway,
not recognized by USSR;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and USSR

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current;
cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north
coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered;
west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts

Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other; there are no trees and the only bushes are
crowberry and cloudberry

Environment: great calving glaciers descend to the sea

Note: located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea,
Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet

People
Population: 3,942 (July 1990), growth rate NA% (1990); about one-third of
the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen and Svea on
Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas (Barentsburg and Pyramiden
on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at the Polish research station

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Ethnic divisions: 64% Russian, 35% Norwegian, 1% other (1981)

Language: Russian, Norwegian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo,
through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty
(9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Leaders:
Chief of State–King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957);

Head of Government Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)

Flag: the flag of Norway is used

Economy
Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By
treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights
to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK,
Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies
still mining are Norwegian and Soviet. Each company mines about half a million
tons of coal annually. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company
towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the
Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and
provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal,
polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
11,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Currency: Norwegian krone (plural–kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1–6.5405 (January
1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986),
8.5972 (1985)

Communications
Ports: limited facilities–Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations;
stations–1 AM, 1 (2 relays) FM, 1 TV

Defense Forces
Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
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Swaziland
Geography
Total area: 17,360 km2; land area: 17,200 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydroelelectric
power, forests, and small gold and diamond deposits

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 67% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

People
Population: 778,525 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swazi(s); adjective–Swazi

Ethnic divisions: 97% African, 3% European

Religion: 60% Christian, 40% indigenous beliefs

Language: English and siSwati (official); government business conducted in
English

Literacy: 67.9%

Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture;
about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with 36% agriculture and
forestry, 20% community and social services, 14% manufacturing, 9% construction,
21% other; 24,000-29,000 employed in South Africa (1987)

Organized labor: about 10% of wage earners

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Swaziland

Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on
12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not
been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts,
Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Libandla) is advisory
and consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State–King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Obed MFANYANA (since 12 July
1989)

Political parties: none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978

Suffrage: none

Elections: no direct elections

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs
Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA;
Chancery at 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-6683;
US–Ambassador (vacant), Deputy Chief of Mission Armajane KARAER;
Embassy at Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address
is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane); telephone 22281 through 22285

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and
white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels,
all placed horizontally

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies
much of the labor force and contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which
includes a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another 25% of GDP.
Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits
were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos.
Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency.
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland
is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 90% of its imports
and to which it sends about one-third of its exports.

GNP: $539 million, per capita $750; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $255 million; expenditures $253 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY91 est.)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–sugar, asbestos, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit,
soft drink concentrates;
partners–South Africa, UK, US

Imports: $386 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–motor vehicles,
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs;
partners–South Africa, US, UK

External debt: $275 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 24% (1986)

Electricity: 50,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and over 60% of labor force;
mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops–sugarcane, citrus fruit,
cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock–corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $132 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468 million

Currency: lilangeni (plural–emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1–2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985);
note–the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 297 km plus 71 km disused, 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or
stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines
and low-capacity radio relay links; 15,400 telephones; stations–6 AM, 6 FM,
10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,537; 96,239 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
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Sweden
Geography
Total area: 449,960 km2; land area: 411,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 2,193 km total; Finland 536 km, Norway 1,657 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool,
partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures;
64% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: water pollution; acid rain

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking
Baltic and North Seas

People
Population: 8,526,452 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swede(s); adjective–Swedish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority;
about 12% foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes,
Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religion: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% Roman Catholic, 5.5% other

Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants
speak native languages

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,531,000 (1988); 32.8% private services, 30.0%
government services, 22.0% mining and manufacturing, 5.9% construction,
5.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 0.9% electricity, gas, and
waterworks (1986)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force (1985 est.)

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Sweden

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan,
Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan,
Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan,
Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan,
Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan,
Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan,
Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riksdag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Leaders:
Chief of State–King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973);
Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the
King (born 14 July 1977);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 12 March 1986);
Deputy Prime Minister Kjell-Olof FELDT (since NA March 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Moderate (conservative), Carl
Bildt; Center, Olof Johansson; Liberal People’s Party, Bengt Westerberg; Social
Democratic, Ingvar Carlsson; Left Party-Communist (VPK), Lars Werner; Swedish
Communist Party (SKP), Rune Pettersson; Communist Workers’ Party, Rolf
Hagel; Green Party, no formal leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament–last held 18 September 1988 (next to be held
September 1991);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(349 total) Social Democratic 156, Moderate (conservative) 66,
Liberals 44, Center 42, Communists 21, Greens 20

Communists: VPK and SKP; VPK, the major Communist party, is reported to
have roughly 17,800 members; in the 1988 election, the VPK attracted 5.8%
of the vote

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development
Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IPU,
ISO, ITU, IWC–International, Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat
Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at
Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago,
Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York;
US–Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101,
S-115 27 Stockholm; telephone Õ46å (8) 7835300

Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the
Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy
Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during
World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable
standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and
extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment,
a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external
communications, and a skilled and intelligent labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy
that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms
account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering
sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. As the 1990s open,
however, Sweden faces serious economic problems: long waits for
adequate housing, the decay of the work ethic, and a loss of
competitive edge in international markets.

GDP: $132.7 billion, per capita $15,700; real growth rate 2.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (September 1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1989)

Budget: revenues $58.0 billion; expenditures $57.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $52.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities–machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp
and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and
petroleum products; partners–EC 52.1%, (FRG 12.1%, UK 11.2%,
Denmark 6.8%), US 9.8%, Norway 9.3%

Imports: $48.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities–machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing;
partners–EC 55.8% (FRG 21.2%, UK 8.6%, Denmark 6.6%),
US 7.5%, Norway 6.0%

External debt: $17.9 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 200,315 million kWh produced,
23,840 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods,
motor vehicles

Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products
accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops–grains, sugar beets, potatoes;
100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion

Currency: Swedish krona (plural–kronor);
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1–6.1798 (January 1990),
6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236 (1986), 8.6039 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)–10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately
owned railways–511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified);
371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

Highways: 97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km
unimproved earth)

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: 84 km natural gas

Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo,
Stockholm; numerous secondary and minor ports

Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,856,217
GRT/2,215,659 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 42
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 27 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 25 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5
combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 65 major transports

Airports: 259 total, 256 usable; 138 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
91 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international
facilities; 8,200,000 telephones; stations–4 AM, 56 (320 relays) FM,
110 (925 relays) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite
earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT
systems

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Air Force, Royal Swedish Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,133,101; 1,865,526 fit for military
service; 56,632 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $4.5 billion (1989 est.)
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Switzerland
Geography
Total area: 41,290 km2; land area: 39,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km,
Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, FRG 334 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy
winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
26% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: dominated by Alps

Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

People
Population: 6,742,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 83 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective–Swiss

Ethnic divisions: total population–65% German, 18% French, 10% Italian,
1% Romansch, 6% other; Swiss nationals–74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian,
1% Romansch, 1% other

Religion: 49% Roman Catholic, 48% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish

Language: total population–65% German, 18% French, 12% Italian, 1%
Romansch, 4% other; Swiss nationals–74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1%
Romansch, 1% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 3,220,000; 841,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian;
42% services, 39% industry and crafts, 11% government, 7% agriculture and
forestry, 1% other (1988)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Swiss Confederation

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular–canton in French;
cantoni, singular–cantone in Italian; kantone, singular–kanton in German);
Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri,
Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general
obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation,
1 August (1291)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Federal Council
(German–Bundesrat, French–Conseil Federal)

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German–Bundesversammlung,
French–Assemblee Federale) consists of an upper council or Council of
States (German–Standerat, French–Conseil des Etats) and and a lower council
or National Council (German–Nationalrat, French–Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Arnold KOLLER
(1990 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Flavio
COTTI (term runs concurrently with that of president)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut
Hubacher, chairman; Radical Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno Hunziker, president;
Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP), Eva Segmuller-Weber, president;
Swiss People’s Party (SVP), Hans Uhlmann, president; Workers’ Party (PdA),
Armand Magnin, secretary general; National Action Party (NA), Hans Zwicky,
chairman; Independents’ Party (LdU), Dr. Franz Jaeger, president; Republican
Movement (Rep), Dr. James Schworzenboch, Franz Baumgartner, leaders; Liberal
Party (LPS), Gilbert Coutau, president; Evangelical People’s Party (EVP), Max
Dunki, president; Progressive Organizations of Switzerland (POCH),
Georg Degen, secretary; Federation of Ecology Parties (GP), Laurent
Rebeaud, president; Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), Werner Carobbio,
secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
Council of State–last held throughout 1987 (next to be
held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(46 total) CVP 19, FDP 14, SPS 5, SVP 4, others 4;

National Council–last held 18 October 1987 (next to be
held October 1991);
results–FDP 22.9%, CVP 20.0%, SPS 18.4%, SVP 11.0%, GP 4.8%, others
22.9%;
seats–(200 total) FDP 51, CVP 42, SPS 41, SVP 25, GP 9, others 32

Communists: 4,500 members (est.)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OECD, UNESCO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; permanent observer status at
the UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900;
there are Swiss Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
New York, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Joseph B. GUILDENHORN; Embassy at
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern; telephone Õ41å (31) 437011;
there is a Branch Office of the Embassy in Geneva and a
Consulate General in Zurich

Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that
does not extend to the edges of the flag

Economy
Overview: Switzerland’s economic success is matched in few, if any,
other nations. Per capita output, general living standards, education
and science, health care, and diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Inflation
remains low because of sound government policy and harmonious
labor-management relations. Unemployment is negligible, a marked
contrast to the larger economies of Western Europe. This economic
stability helps promote the important banking and tourist sectors. Since
World War II, Switzerland’s economy has adjusted smoothly to the great
changes in output and trade patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust
to the challenges of the 1990s, in particular, the further economic
integration of Western Europe and the amazingly rapid changes in East
European political/economic prospects.

GDP: $119.5 billion, per capita $17,800; real growth rate 3.0%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $17.0 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $51.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–machinery and
equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
and clothing;
partners–Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%

Imports: $57.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–agricultural
products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles,
construction materials;
partners–Europe 79% (EC 72%, other 7%), US 5%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced,
8,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient;
food shortages–fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains,
eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $2.5 billion

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural–francs, franken, or
franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1–1.5150
(January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986),
2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned
and 2,203 km are nongovernment owned; the government network consists
of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow
gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment
network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km
1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge track, 100% electrified

Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are canton and
1,057 km are national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km are communal roads

Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,506 km natural gas

Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen
to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Ports: Basel (river port)

Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 215,851
GRT/365,131 DWT; includes 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical tanker,
3 specialized liquid cargo, 8 bulk

Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft

Airports: 72 total, 70 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and broadcast
services; 5,808,000 telephones; stations–6 AM, 36 (400 relays) FM,
145 (1,250 relays) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating
in the INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,800,211; 1,550,662 fit for military
service; 44,154 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.2 billion (1989 est.)
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Syria
Geography
Total area: 185,180 km2; land area: 184,050 km2 (including 1,295 km2
of Israeli-occupied territory)

Comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km,
Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm beyond territorial sea limit;

Territorial sea: 35 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights
is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq
over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq,
Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild,
rainy winters (December to February) along coast

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain;
mountains in west

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: there are 35 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights

People
Population: 12,483,440 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990);
in addition, there are 13,500 Druze and 10,500 Jewish settlers in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Syrian(s); adjective–Syrian

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% Arab; 9.7% Kurds, Armenians, and other

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim; 16% Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects;
10% Christian (various sects); tiny Jewish communities in Damascus,
Al Qamishli, and Aleppo

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic,
Circassian; French widely understood

Literacy: 49%

Labor force: 2,400,000; 36% miscellaneous and government services,
32% agriculture, 32% industry and construction); majority unskilled;
shortage of skilled labor (1984)

Organized labor: 5% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

Capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah,
Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab,
Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Madinat Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious
courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister,
three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People’s Council (Majlis ash Shaab)

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial
Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Lt. Gen. Hafiz al-ASSAD (since 22 February
1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Dr. Rifat al-ASSAD, and
Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984)

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist
Resurrectionist (Bath) Party; the Progressive National Front is dominated by
Bathists but includes independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist
Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Socialist Unionist Movement, and Syrian
Communist Party (SCP)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February
1992);
results–President Hafiz al-Assad was reelected without opposition;

People’s Council–last held 10-11 February 1986 (next to be
held 22 May 1990);
results–Bath 66%, ASU 5%, SCP 5%, Socialist Unionist Movement 4%,
ASP 2%, independents 18%;
seats–(195 total) Bath 129, Communist 9, ASU 9, Socialiist Unionist
Movement 8, ASP 5, independents 35; the People’s Council will have
250 seats total in the 22 May 1990 election

Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest threat to
Assad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative religious
leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOOC, IPU, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid Mu’allim;
Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
232-6313;
US–Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh,
Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus);
telephone Õ963å (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two
small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Iraq which has three
stars (in a horizontal line centered in the white band)–all green and
five-pointed; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle
centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: Syria’s rigidly structured Bathist economy is turning out
roughly the same amount of goods in 1989 as in 1983, when the population
was 20% smaller. Economic difficulties are attributable, in part, to severe
drought in several recent years, costly but unsuccessful attempts to match
Israel’s military strength, a falloff in Arab aid, and insufficient foreign
exchange earnings to buy needed inputs for industry and agriculture. Socialist
policy, embodied in a thicket of bureaucratic regulations, in many instances
has driven away or pushed underground the mercantile and entrepreneurial spirit
for which Syrian businessmen have long been famous. Two bright spots: a sizable
number of villagers have benefited from land redistribution, electrification,
and other rural development programs; and a recent find of light crude oil
has enabled Syria to cut back its substantial imports of light crude. A
long-term concern is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by
Turkey when its vast dam and irrigation projects are completed toward the end
of the 1990s.

GDP: $18.5 billion, per capita $1,540; real growth rate – 2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.92 billion (1989)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum,
textiles, fruits and vegetables, phosphates;
partners–Italy, Romania, USSR, US, Iran, France

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum,
machinery, base metals, foodstuffs and beverages;
partners–Iran, FRG, USSR, France, GDR, Libya, US

External debt: $5.3 billion in hard currency (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,867,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco,
phosphate rock mining, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all
major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown on rainfed land
causing wide swings in yields; animal products–beef, lamb, eggs, poultry,
milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western
(non-US) ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$3.3 billion

Currency: Syrian pound (plural–pounds);
1 Syrian pound (LS) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (LS) per US$1–11.2250 (fixed rate since
1987), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 2,241 km total; 1,930 km standard gauge, 311 km
1.050-meter narrow gauge; note–the Tartus-Latakia line is nearly
complete

Highways: 27,000 km total; 21,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or crushed
stone, 3,000 km improved earth

Inland waterways: 672 km; of little economic importance

Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products

Ports: Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas

Merchant marine: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,938 GRT/72,220
DWT; includes 16 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

Airports: 97 total, 94 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system currently undergoing significant
improvement; 512,600 telephones; stations–9 AM, 1 FM, 40 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station, with 1 Intersputnik station
under construction; 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq,
Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive)

Defense Forces
Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,712,360; 1,520,798 fit for military
service; 144,791 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
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Tanzania
Geography
Total area: 945,090 km2; land area: 886,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi
475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates,
iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use: 5% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
47% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent
droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

People
Population: 25,970,843 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tanzanian(s); adjective–Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions: mainland–99% native African consisting of well over 100
tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: mainland–33% Christian, 33% Muslim, 33% indigenous beliefs;
Zanzibar–almost all Muslim

Language: Swahili and English (official); English primary language of
commerce, administration, and higher education; Swahili widely understood and
generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most
people is one of the local languages; primary education is generally in
Swahili

Literacy: 79%

Labor force: 732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry and
commerce (1986 est.)

Organized labor: 15% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: United Republic of Tanzania

Type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been transferred
to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital in the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza,
Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West,
Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from
UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964
to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United
Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

Constitution: 15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but remains
subject to provisions of the union Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Executive branch: president, first vice president and prime minister of
the union, second vice president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985);

Head of Government–First Vice President and Prime Minister Joseph Sinde
WARIOBA (since 6 November 1985)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM or Revolutionary Party), Julius Nyerere, party chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held
October 1990);
results–Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held
October 1990);
results–CCM is the only party;
seats–(244 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

Communists: no Communist party; a few Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Charles Musama
NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-6125;
US–Ambassador Edmond DE JARNETTE; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off
Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123,
Dar es Salaam); telephone Õ255å (51) 37501 through 37504

Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is blue

Economy
Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The
economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 40% of
GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for about 10% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural
products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in
mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank and
the International Monetary Fund have increased the availability of
imports and provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania’s deteriorated
economic infrastructure.

GDP: $5.92 billion, per capita $235; real growth rate 4.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $568 million; expenditures $835 million,
including capital expenditures of $230 million (FY89)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities–coffee, cotton,
sisal, cashew nuts, meat, tobacco, tea, diamonds, coconut products, pyrethrum,
cloves (Zanzibar);
partners–FRG, UK, US, Netherlands, Japan

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., FY89); commodities–manufactured
goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil,
foodstuffs;
partners–FRG, UK, US, Iran, Japan, Italy

External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 401,000 kW capacity; 895 million kWh produced,
35 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes,
sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles,
wood products, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for over 40% of GDP; topography and climatic
conditions limit cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash
crops–coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops–corn,
wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and vegetables; small numbers of cattle,
sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $387 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $8.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$607 million

Currency: Tanzanian shilling (plural–shillings);
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1–192.901 (January
1990), 143.377 (1989), 99.292 (1988), 64.260 (1987), 32.698 (1986), 17.472
(1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 6.4 km double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad 1.067-meter gauge; 115 km
1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade

Highways: total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed
stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza
on Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,174 GRT/39,186
DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 103 total, 92 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; stations–12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Tanzanian People’s Defense Force includes Army, Navy, and Air
Force; paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,351,192; 3,087,501 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1985)
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Thailand
Geography
Total area: 514,000 km2; land area: 511,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km,
Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Laos

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon
(mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to
mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber,
lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use: 34% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
30% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and
Singapore

People
Population: 55,115,683 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Thai (sing. and pl.); adjective–Thai

Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 11% other

Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% other

Language: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and
regional dialects

Literacy: 82%

Labor force: 26,000,000; 73% agriculture, 11% industry and commerce,
10% services, 6% government (1984)

Organized labor: 300,000 union members (1986)

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Thailand

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural);
Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai,
Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi,
Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat,
Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao,
Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae,
Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et,
Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun,
Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak,
Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala,
Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized

Constitution: 22 December 1978

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Ratha Satha) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Woothi Satha) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Satha Poothan)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarn Dika)

Leaders:
Chief of State–King BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ (since 9 June 1946);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince VAJIRALONGKORN (born 28 July 1952);

Head of Government Prime Minister Maj. Gen. CHATCHAI CHUNHAWAN
(since 9 August 1988); Deputy Prime Minister CHUAN LIKPHAI

Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party (DP), Social Action
Party (SAP), Thai Nation Party (TNP), People’s Party (Ratsadon),
People’s Party (Prachachon), Thai Citizens Party (TCP),
United Democracy Party, Solidarity Party, Thai People’s Party,
Mass Party, Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held 24 July 1988 (next to be held
within 90 days of July 1992);
results–TNP 27%, SAP 15%, DP 13%, TCP 9%, others 36%;
seats–(357 total) TNP 96, Solidarity 62, SAP 54, DP 48, TCP 31,
People’s Party (Ratsadon) 21, People’s Party (Prachachon) 17,
Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma) 14, United Democracy Party 5,
Mass Party 5, others 4

Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members (est.);
armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500 (est.)

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, ASPAC, Association of Tin Producing
Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, GATT, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador VITTHYA VEJJAJIVA; Embassy at
2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7200;
there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;
US–Ambassador Daniel O’DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
(mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone Õ66å (2) 252-5040; there
is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in Songkhla and Udorn

Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width),
white, and red

Economy
Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries
in Asia, enjoyed its second straight exceptionally prosperous year in
1989. Real output again rose about 11%. The increasingly sophisticated
manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, and
agriculture grew by 4.0% because of improved weather. The trade deficit
of $5.2 billion was more than offset by earnings from tourism
($3.9 billion), remittances, and net capital inflows. The government has
followed a fairly sound fiscal and monetary policy, aided by increased
tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1989 the government
approved new projects–roads, ports, electric power,
communications–needed to refurbish the now overtaxed infrastructure.
Although growth in 1990-91 must necessarily fall below the 1988-89 pace,
Thailand’s immediate economic outlook is good, assuming the continuation
of prudent government policies in the context of a
private-sector-oriented development strategy.

GNP: $64.5 billion, per capita $1,160; real growth rate 10.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $9.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY89)

Exports: $19.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–textiles
12%, fishery products 12%, rice 8%, tapioca 8%, jewelry 6%,
manufactured gas, corn, tin;
partners–US 18%, Japan 14%, Singapore 9%, Netherlands, Malaysia,
Hong Kong, China (1988)

Imports: $25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–machinery and
parts 23%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical
appliances;
partners–Japan 26%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, FRG, Malaysia, UK (1987)

External debt: $18.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.5% (1989)

Electricity: 7,100,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles
and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light
manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated
circuits, furniture, plastics; world’s second-largest tungsten producer and
third-largest tin producer

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GNP and 73% of labor force; leading
producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops–rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food; fish
catch of 2.2 million tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin,
particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug
market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and
shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has
been affected by eradication efforts, but unusually good weather
boosted output in 1989

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $828 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

Currency: baht (plural–baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1–25.726 (January 1990), 25.699 (1989),
25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986), 27.159 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface,
11,386 km under development

Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable
depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable
by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

Merchant marine: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,688
GRT/730,750 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 70 cargo, 8 container,
27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 1 chemical
tanker, 3 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public adequate; bulk of service to
government activities provided by multichannel cable and radio relay network;
739,500 telephones (1987); stations–over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11 TV in
government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic satellite system being developed

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine
Corps), Royal Thai Air Force; paramilitary forces include Border Patrol Police,
Thahan Phran (irregular soldiers), Village Defense Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,617,486; 9,543,119 fit for military
service; 610,410 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GNP, or $1.9 billion (1989 est.)
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Togo
Geography
Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km,
Ghana 877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use: 25% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north
during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

People
Population: 3,674,355 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 112 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Togolese

Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and
Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

Religion: about 70% indigenous beliefs, 20% Christian, 10% Muslim

Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major African
languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye in the north

Literacy: 40.7%

Labor force: NA; 78% agriculture, 22% industry; about 88,600 wage earners,
evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of population of working
age (1985)

Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of Togolese
Workers

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Togo

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

Capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular–circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs),
Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari),
Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou),
Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note–the 21 units may now be called
prefectures (prefectures, singular–prefecture) and reported name
changes for individual units are included in parenthesis

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration, formerly French Togo)

Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

Legal system: French-based court system

National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January (1967)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d’Appel), Supreme Court
(Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Gnassingbe
EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Rally of the Togolese
People (RPT), President Eyadema

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
President–last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December 1993);
results–Gen. Eyadema was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995);
results–RPT is the only party;
seats–(77 total) RPT 77

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, ENTENTE, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS; Chancery at
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4212
or 4213;
US–Ambassador Rush W. TAYLOR, Jr.; Embassy at Rue Pelletier Caventou and
Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome);
telephone Õ228å 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-36-09

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating
with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper
hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy
Overview: Togo is one of the least developed countries in the world with a
per capita GDP of about $400. The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence
agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides employment for 80%
of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton,
which together account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is
self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial
sector phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate
exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings.

GDP: $1.35 billion, per capita $405; real growth rate 4.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

Budget: revenues $354 million; expenditures $399 million,
including capital expenditures of $102 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–phosphates,
cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm kernels;
partners–EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

Imports: $369 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–food, fuels,
durable consumer goods, other intermediate goods, capital goods;
partners–EC 69%, Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 4%, other 10% (1985)

External debt: $1.3 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 117,000 kW capacity; 155 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement,
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Agriculture: cash crops–coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops–yams,
cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum, fish

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $121 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$46 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,809 GRT/72,289
DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines
supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM,
3 (2 relays) TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 SYMPHONIE

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 767,949; 403,546 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1987)
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Tokelau
(territory of New Zealand)
Geography
Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

People
Population: 1,700 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tokelauan(s); adjective–Tokelauan

Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western Samoa

Religion: 70% Congregational Christian Church, 30% Roman Catholic; on
Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman
Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian
Church predominant

Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of New Zealand

Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948,
as amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign
Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government–Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary
M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

Suffrage: NA

Elections: NA

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

Economy
Overview: Tokelau’s small size, isolation, and lack of resources
greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain
public services, annual aid being substantially greater than GDP.
The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage stamps,
souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to families from
relatives in New Zealand.

GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including
capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983); commodities–stamps, copra,
handicrafts; partners–NZ

Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983); commodities–foodstuffs,
building materials, fuel; partners–NZ

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
175 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work,
plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops–breadfruit,
papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $21 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural–dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1–1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa

Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
.pa
Tonga
Geography
Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral
formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use: 25% arable land; 55% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 2% other

Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to
cyclones (October to April); deforestation

Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

People
Population: 101,313 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tongan(s); adjective–Tongan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

Language: Tongan, English

Literacy: 90-95%; compulsory education for children ages 6 to 14

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nukualofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu,
Vavau

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–King Taufa’ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU’IPELEHAKE (since
16 December 1965)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females
over 21

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held 14-15 February 1990
(next to be held NA February 1993);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

Communists: none known

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, FAO, ESCAP, GATT (de facto),
IFAD, ITU, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a’Ulupekotofa
TUITA resides in London;
US–the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited
to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner

Economy
Overview: The economy’s base is agriculture, which employs about
70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and
vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand.
The manufacturing sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism is the primary
source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on
sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade deficit.

GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6%
(FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (FY87)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $54.8 million; expenditures $56.2 million, including
capital expenditures of $16.9 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $9.1 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.);
commodities–coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro,
vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish;
partners–NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

Imports: $60.1 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.); commodities–food
products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery and transport equipment,
chemicals, building materials;
partners–NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5% (FY87)

External debt: $31.8 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 15% (FY86)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
80 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Agriculture: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production;
vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $15 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $220 million

Currency: pa’anga (plural–pa’anga); 1 pa’anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa’anga (T$) per US$1–1.23 (FY89 est.), 1.37 (FY88),
1.51 (FY87), 1.43 (FY86), 1.30 (FY85)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vavau); 94 km unsealed
roads usable only in dry weather

Ports: Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai

Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,249 GRT/50,116
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,529 telephones; 66,000 radio receivers; no TV sets;
stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Land Force, Maritime Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Trinidad and Tobago
Geography
Total area: 5,130 km2; land area: 5,130 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, asphalt

Land use: 14% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 2% meadows and
pastures; 44% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Note: located 11 km from Venezuela

People
Population: 1,344,639 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective–Trinidadian,
Tobagonian

Ethnic divisions: 43% black, 40% East Indian, 14% mixed, 1% white, 1%
Chinese, 1% other

Religion: 36.2% Roman Catholic, 23.0% Hindu, 13.1% Protestant, 6.0%
Muslim, 21.7% unknown

Language: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 463,900; 18.1% construction and utilities;
14.8% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying; 10.9% agriculture;
56.2% other (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 22% of labor force (1988)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since
18 December 1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR),
A. N. R. Robinson; People’s National Movement (PNM), Patrick Manning;
United National Congress, Basdeo Panday; Movement for Social
Transformation (MOTION), David Abdullah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held 15 December 1986 (next to be
held by December 1991);
results–NAR 66%, PNM 32%, others 2%;
seats–(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3

Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and
Tobago Peace Council, James Millette

Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee (NJAC),
radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and Tobago Peace
Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad
and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress,
moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor
federation

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development
Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC–International
Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery
at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone
(202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen’s Park West,
Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain);
telephone Õ809å 622-6372 or 6376, 6176

Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

Economy
Overview: Trinidad and Tobago’s petroleum-based economy has been in
decline since 1982. During the first half of the 1980s, the petroleum sector
accounted for nearly 80% of export earnings, 40% of government revenues,
and almost 25% of GDP. In recent years, however, the economy has suffered
because of the sharp fall in the price of oil. The government, in response to
the revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures that pushed the
unemployment rate to 22% in 1988. Agriculture employs only about 11% of
the labor force and produces less than 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it
has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed. The
government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

GDP: $3.75 billion, per capita $3,070; real growth rate – 2.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $430 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–includes
reexports–petroleum and petroleum products 70%, fertilizer, chemicals
15%, steel products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1987);
partners–US 61%, EC 15%, CARICOM 9%, Latin America 7%, Canada 3%
(1986)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities–raw materials
41%, capital goods 30%, consumer goods 29% (1986);
partners–US 42%, EC 21%, Japan 10%, Canada 6%, Latin America 6%,
CARICOM 4% (1986)

External debt: $2.02 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining (1986)

Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,350 million kWh produced,
2,700 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP and 4% of labor force;
highly subsidized sector; major crops–cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane
acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables;
must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $370 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $437 million

Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1–4.2500
(January 1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987), 3.6000 (1986),
2.4500 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000
km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km natural gas

Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric
scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones;
stations–2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force, Trinidad and Tobago Police
Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 343,292; 248,674 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $59 million (1989 est.)
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Tromelin Island
(French possession)
Geography
Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other–scattered bushes

Environment: wildlife sanctuary

Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in
the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

People
Population: uninhabited

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic
Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: important meteorological station

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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Tunisia
Geography
Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc,
salt

Land use: 20% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 47% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only
144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

People
Population: 8,095,492 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tunisian(s); adjective–Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, less than 1% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

Literacy: 62% (est.)

Labor force: 2,250,000; 32% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor
force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of
Constitutional Democratic Party

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note–may be changed to Tunisian
Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat,
singular–wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir, Al Qasrayn,
Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart, Bin Arus, Jundubah,
Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah, Qibili, Safaqis,
Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah, Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis,
Zaghwan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 1 June 1959

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI
(since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(RCD), President Ben Ali (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic
Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri; five other political parties are legal,
including the Communist Party

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President–last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994);
results–Gen. Zine el Abidine Ben Aliwas reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 2 April 1989
(next to be held April 1994);
results–RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, others 2.4%
seats–(141 total) RCD 141

Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, AIOEC, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat
Council, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdelaziz HAMZAOUI; Chancery at
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850;
US–Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone Õ216å (1) 782-566

Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly
encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional
symbols of Islam

Economy
Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, and
tourism for continued growth. Two successive drought-induced crop
failures have strained the government’s budget and increased
unemployment. The current account fell from a $23 million surplus in
1988 to a $390 million deficit in 1989. Despite its foreign payments
problems, Tunis appears committed to its IMF-supported structural
adjustment program. Nonetheless, the government may have to slow its
implementation to head off labor unrest. The increasing foreign
debt–$7.6 billion at yearend 1989–is also a key problem. Tunis
probably will seek debt relief in 1990.

GDP: $8.7 billion, per capita $1,105; real growth rate 3.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $2.9 billion; expenditures $3.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.8 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities–hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and
chemicals; partners–EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–industrial
goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods;
partners–EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia,
Algeria

External debt: $7.6 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore),
textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output
subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export
crops–olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products–grain, sugar
beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1986)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $694 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$410 million

Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural–dinars);
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1–0.9055 (January 1990),
0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940 (1986), 0.8345 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge;
1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and
unimproved earth

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural gas

Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172 GRT/218,970
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 28 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities
consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio relay; key centers
are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones;
stations–18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth stations–1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial
cable to Algeria; radio relay to Algeria, Libya, and Italy

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,997,197; 1,149,141 fit for military
service; 88,368 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.7% of GDP, or $235 million (1989 est.)
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Turkey
Geography
Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km,
Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: in Black Sea only–to the maritime
boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm (12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with
Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing
dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans
for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq,
Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters;
harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulphur, iron ore

Land use: 30% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major
river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus,
Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Turkey and
Norway only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

People
Population: 56,704,327 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Turk(s); adjective–Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 98% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 2% other (mostly Christian and
Jewish)

Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 70%

Labor force: 18,800,000; 56% agriculture, 30% services, 14% industry;
about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 67 provinces (iller, singular–il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir,
Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum,
Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir,
Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta,
Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirklareli,
Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus,
Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat,
Zonguldak; note–there may be four new provinces named Aksaray, Bayburt,
Karaman, and Kirikkale

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic,
29 October (1923)

Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet
Meclisi)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Yildirim AKBULUT (since 9 November
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BOZER (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party (ANAP), Yildirim
Akbulut; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal Inonu; Correct Way
Party (CWP), Suleyman Demirel; Democratic Left Party (DLP), Bulent
Ecevit; Prosperity Party (RP), Necmettin Erbakan; National Work Party (MCP),
Alpaslan Turkes; Reform Democratic Party (IDP), Aykut Edibali

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
Grand National Assembly–last held 29 November 1987
(next to be held November 1992);
results–ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, CWP 19%, others 20%;
seats–(450 total) ANAP 283, SHP 81, CWP 56, independents 26, vacant 4

Communists: strength and support negligible

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC (associate member),
ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU,
NATO, OECD, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at
1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200;
there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
and New York;
US–Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard,
Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09254–0001);
telephone Õ90å (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in
Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward
the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered on the hoist side

Economy
Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 continue
to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown steadily since
the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP increasing more than 6%
annually. Agriculture remains the most important economic sector,
employing about 60% of the labor force, accounting for almost 20% of GDP, and
contributing about 25% to exports. Impressive growth in recent years has not
solved all of the economic problems facing Turkey. Inflation and interest rates
remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties
for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally
controlled to a free market economy. The government has launched a
multimillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which
includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to
generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned
tapping of huge quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the
downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

GDP: $75 billion, per capita $1,350; real growth rate 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 68.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1988)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $14.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.08 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–industrial
products 70%, crops and livestock products 25%;
partners–FRG 18.4%, Iraq 8.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 6.5%, UK 4.9%,
Iran 4.7%

Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–crude oil,
machinery, transport equipment, metals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics,
rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals; partners–FRG 14.3%,
US 10.6%, Iraq 10.0%, Italy 7.0%, France 5.8%, UK 5.2%

External debt: $36.3 billion (November 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% (1988)

Electricity: 14,064,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
720 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite,
copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of population;
products–tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit,
variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Illicit drugs: one of the world’s major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$4.5 billion

Currency: Turkish lira (plural–liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1–2,314.7 (November 1989),
1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel or
crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)

Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products;
708 km natural gas

Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

Merchant marine: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,972,465
GRT/5,087,620 DWT; includes 6 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 193 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 35 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 4 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 55 bulk, 4 combination bulk, 1 specialized liquid cargo

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft (1985)

Airports: 119 total, 112 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio
relay network; 3,100,000 telephones; stations–15 AM; 45 (60 repeaters) FM;
61 (476 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

Defense Forces
Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,413,944; 8,813,430 fit for military
service; 597,547 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.9% of GDP, or $2.9 billion (1989 est.)
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Turks and Caicos Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
Geography
Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 98% other

Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North
Atlantic Ocean

People
Population: 9,761 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Church of God,
Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries;
some subsistence agriculture

Organized labor: St. George’s Industrial Trade Union

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a
Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented
by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government–Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since 3 March
1988)

Political parties and leaders: People’s Democratic Movement (PDM),
Oswald Skippings; Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan Malcolm and
Norman Saunders; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel Missick

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council–last held on 3 March 1988
(next to be held NA);
results–PDM 60%, PNP 30%, others 10%;
seats–(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the
interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by
the UK;
US–none

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield
is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore
banking. Subsistence farming–corn and beans–exists only on the Caicos
Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be
imported.

GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84); commodities–lobster, dried
and fresh conch, conch shells; partners–US, UK

Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84); commodities–foodstuffs,
drink, tobacco, clothing; partners–US, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced,
1,160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans;
fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $92.8 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd.
(cargo service)

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones;
stations–3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
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Tuvalu
Geography
Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

People
Population: 9,136 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Tuvaluans(s); adjective–Tuvaluan

Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

Religion: Christian, predominantly Protestant

Language: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: less than 50%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: democracy

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament–last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(12 total)

Member of: ACP, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de facto), SPF, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); US–none

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant;
the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow
five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

Economy
Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with
poor-quality soil. The country has a small economy, no known mineral resources,
and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic
activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of a
tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and
coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually
from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New
Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.

GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.59 million; expenditures $3.6 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1983 est.)

Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.); commodities–copra;
partners–Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.); commodities–food,
animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods; partners–Fiji,
Australia, NZ

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA

Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Agriculture: coconuts, copra

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million

Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1–1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987),
1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications
Highways: 8 km gravel

Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043
GRT/450 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones;
4,000 radio receivers; 108 telephones

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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Uganda
Geography
Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan
435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December
to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use: 23% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures;
30% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

People
Population: 17,960,262 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Ugandan(s); adjective–Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% European, Asian, Arab

Religion: 33% Roman Catholic, 33% Protestant, 16% Muslim, rest indigenous
beliefs

Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu
and Nilotic languages

Literacy: 57.3%

Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); 94% subsistence activities, 6% wage earners
(est.); 50% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 125,000 union members

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern,
Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, suspended following coup of 27 July 1985;
in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common
law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
29 January 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since
30 January 1986); First Deputy Prime Minister Eriya KATEGAYA (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: only party–National Resistance
Movement (NRM); note–the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan
People’s Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party
(CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Resistance Council–last held 11-28 February 1989
(next to be held after January 1995);
results–NRM is the only party;
seats–(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) NRM 210

Other political parties or pressure groups: Uganda People’s Democratic
Movement (UPDM), Uganda People’s Front (UPF), Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM),
Holy Spirit Movement (HSM)

Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI;
5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through
7102; US–Ambassador John A. BURROUGHS, Jr.; Embassy at British High
Commission Building, Obote Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box
7007, Kampala); telephone Õ256å (41) 259791

Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black,
yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts
a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

Economy
Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile
soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and
cobalt. For most of the past 15 years the economy has been devastated by
political instability, mismanagement, and civil war, keeping Uganda poor
with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels
of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.) Agriculture is the
most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work
force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounted for 97% of export
revenues in 1988. Since 1986 the government has acted to rehabilitate and
stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer
prices on export crops, increasing petroleum prices, and
improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at
dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting
production and export earnings.

GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $300 (1988); real growth rate 6.1% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 72% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $272 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–coffee 97%,
cotton, tea; partners–US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $626 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–petroleum
products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food;
partners–Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $1.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 25.1% (1988)

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced,
18 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash
crops–coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops–cassava, potatoes, corn,
millet, pulses; livestock products–beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $123 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$140 million

Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural–shillings);
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1–370 (December 1989),
223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00 (1986), 6.72 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel,
and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George,
Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at
Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,697 GRT

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 39 total, 30 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio communications
stations; 61,600 telephones; stations–10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: National Resistance Army (NRA)

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3,836,921; about 2,084,813 fit for
military service

Defense expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (1985)
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United Arab Emirates
Geography
Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km,
Qatar 20 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant
line

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary with
Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line
in far north; claims three islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran
(Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg
or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand
dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 2% meadows and
pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 98% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural
freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification

Note: strategic location along southern approaches to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

People
Population: 2,253,624 (July 1990), growth rate 6.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Emirian(s), adjective–Emirian

Ethnic divisions: 19% Emirian, 23% other Arab, 50% South Asian
(fluctuating), 8% other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians); less
than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

Religion: 96% Muslim (16% Shia); 4% Christian, Hindu, and other

Language: Arabic (official); Farsi and English widely spoken in major
cities; Hindi, Urdu

Literacy: 68%

Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); 85% industry and commerce,
5% agriculture, 5% services, 5% government; 80% of labor force is foreign

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

Government
Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE

Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member shaykhdoms

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular–imarah);
Abu Zaby, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy,
Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and
in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN of Abu Dhabi
(since 2 December 1971); Vice President Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM
of Dubayy (since 2 December 1971;

Head of Government–Prime Minister Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM
of Dubayy (Prime Minister since 30 April 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Maktum bin
Rashid al MAKTUM (since 2 December 1971)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine
groups are active

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayed
AL-NAHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500;
US–Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street,
Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone Õ971å (2)
336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubai

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a
thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

Economy
Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world’s higher
levels of income per capita. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and the
fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since
1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound
transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a
modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of production,
crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.

GNP: $23.3 billion, per capita $11,680; real growth rate – 2.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5-6% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–crude oil
75%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates; partners–US, EC, Japan

Imports: $8.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–food,
consumer and capital goods; partners–EC, Japan, US

External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 9.3% (1986)

Electricity: 5,590,000 kW capacity; 15,000 million kWh produced,
7,090 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Agriculture: accounts for 1% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash
crop–dates; food products–vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy,
fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor–pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed
countries (1979-89)

Currency: Emirian dirham (plural–dirhams);
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1–3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded
earth

Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural gas
liquids

Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali,
Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr,
Mina Zayid

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 728,332
GRT/1,181,566 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 7 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 34 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with
runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key
centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; stations–8 AM, 3 FM,
12 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Central Military Command, Federal
Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 904,690; 498,082 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion (1987)
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United Kingdom
Geography
Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall
and Shetland Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Ireland; Northern Ireland question
with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland
Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in
British Indian Ocean Territory; Hong Kong is scheduled to become a
Special Administrative Region of China in 1997; Rockall continental shelf
dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have
signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in
Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over
the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains
in east and southeast

Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin,
limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use: 29% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 48% meadows and
pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 14% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water quality;
because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from
tidal waters

Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from
France

People
Population: 57,365,665 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective–British

Ethnic divisions: 81.5% English, 9.6% Scottish, 2.4% Irish, 1.9% Welsh,
1.8% Ulster, 2.8% West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other

Religion: 27.0 million Anglican, 5.3 million Roman Catholic, 2.0 million
Presbyterian, 760,000 Methodist, 410,000 Jewish

Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form
of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 28,120,000; 53.3% services, 23.6% manufacturing and
construction, 10.8% self-employed, 6.8% government, 1.0% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: 37% of labor force (1987)

Government
Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;
abbreviated UK

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties,
26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas

England–39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire,
Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon,
Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater
Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of
Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton,
Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South
Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*,
West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire

Northern Ireland–26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena,
Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine,
Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn,
Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down,
Omagh, Strabane

Scotland–9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and
Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde,
Tayside, Western Isles*

Wales–8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys,
South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region
of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental
influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

Judicial branch: House of Lords

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Margaret THATCHER (since 4 May 1979);
Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey HOWE (since 24 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative, Margaret Thatcher; Labour,
Neil Kinnock; Social Democratic, David Owen (disbanded 3 June 1990);
Social and Liberal Democratic Party, Jeremy (Paddy) Ashdown; Communist,
Nina Temple; Scottish National, Gordon Wilson; Plaid Cymru, Dafydd Thomas;
Ulster Unionist, James Molyneaux; Democratic Unionist, Ian Paisley; Social
Democratic and Labour, John Hume; Provisional Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams;
Alliance/Northern Ireland

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Commons–last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held
by June 1992);
results–Conservative 43%, Labour 32%, Social and Liberal Democratic
Party 23%, others 2%;
seats–(650 total) Conservative 376, Labour 228, Social and Liberal
Democratic Party 18, Ulster (Official) Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9,
Social Democratic Party 4, Scottish National Party 4, Plaid Cymru
(Welsh Nationalist) 3, Ulster Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3,
Social Democratic and Labour (Northern Ireland) 3,
Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1,
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1

Communists: 15,961

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation
of British Industry, National Farmers’ Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Council of Europe, DAC, EC,
ESCAP, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU,
IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat
Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery at
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340;
there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas,
Miami, and Seattle;
US–Ambassador Henry E. CATTO; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square,
London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is Box 40, FPO New York 09509);
telephone Õ44å (01) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast
and Edinburgh

Flag: blue with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England)
edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron
saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of
St. Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack;
the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a
number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

Economy
Overview: The UK is one of the world’s great trading powers and
financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in
Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture
of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade
the Thatcher government has halted the expansion of welfare measures and
has promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European
standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor
force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing
about 24% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an
energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves;
primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest
shares of any industrial nation. Following the recession of 1979-81, the
economy has enjoyed the longest period of continuous economic growth it
has had during the last 30 years. During the period 1982-89 real GDP grew
by about 25%, while the inflation rate of 14% was nearly halved. Between
1986 and 1989 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%. As a major trading
nation, the UK will continue to be greatly affected by: world boom or
recession; swings in the international oil market; productivity trends in
domestic industry; and the terms on which the economic integration of
Europe proceeds.

GDP: $818.0 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 2.3%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $348.7 billion; expenditures $327.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $42.0 billion (FY89)

Exports: $151.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–manufactured
goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment;
partners–EC 50.4% (FRG 11.7%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 6.8%), US 13.0%,
Communist countries 2.3%

Imports: $189.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–manufactured
goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods;
partners–EC 52.5% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.8%, Netherlands 7.8%), US 10.2%,
Communist countries 2.1%

External debt: $15.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1989)

Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 361,990 million kWh produced,
6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food
processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing, other
consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force; highly
mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products
produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of
665,000 metric tons (1987)

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.9 billion

Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural–pounds);
1 British pound (L) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$1–0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989) 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: Great Britain–16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates
16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km
double or multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and
narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways
(NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km double track

Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved
(including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland,
23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km;
Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km refined
products; 12,800 km natural gas

Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool,
Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

Merchant marine: 285 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,174,142GRT/9,024,090 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 44 cargo, 44 container, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
9 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier,
78 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 45 bulk,
1 combination bulk

Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

Airports: 522 total, 379 usable; 245 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 132 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system;
30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems;
stations–223 AM, 165 (396 relays) FM, 205 (3,210 relays) TV; 38 coaxial
submarine cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT
systems

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Army, Royal Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,462,993; 12,180,580 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $35 billion (1989 est.)
.pa
United States
Geography
Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only
the 50 states and District of Colombia

Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about one-third
the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or slightly
larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times
the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries: 12,248.1 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km
with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29.1 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at
Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US
abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa
Island; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the
right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic
(Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains
in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic
topography in Hawaii

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium,
bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc,
crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 26% meadows and
pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 25% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water quality;
acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of
sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes,
and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in
northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Note: world’s fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and China)

People
Population: 250,410,000 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–American(s); adjective–American

Ethnic divisions: 85% white, 12% black, 3% other (1985)

Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%,
Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic 25%,
Jewish 2%, other 5%; none 7%

Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 125,557,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed);
civilian labor force 123,869,000 (1989)

Organized labor: 16,960,000 members; 16.4% of labor force (1989)

Government
Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Pennyslvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee,
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island;
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island. Since 18 July 1947, the
US has administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently
entered into a new political relationship with three of the four political
units. The Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth associated with the US
(effective 3 November 1986). Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with
the US that was approved by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has
not been completed in Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986).
The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with
the US (effective 21 October 1986).

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President George BUSH
(since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since
20 January 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Lee Atwater,
national committee chairman and Jeanie Austin, co-chairman;
Democratic Party, Ronald H. Brown, national committee chairman;
several other groups or parties of minor political significance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results–George Bush (Republican Party) 53.37%,
Michael Dukakis (Democratic Party) 45.67%, others 0.96%;

Senate–last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results–Democratic Party 52.1%, Republican Party 46.2%, others 1.7%;
seats–(100 total) Democratic Party 55, Republican Party 45;

House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results–Democratic Party 53.2%, Republican Party 45.3%, others 1.5%;
seats–(435 total) Democratic Party 259, Republican Party 174, vacant 2

Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus Hall,
general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack Barnes,
national secretary

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, FAO, ESCAP, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICEM, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American
Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission,
IWC–International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, SPC, UN, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN,
Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza,
New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444

Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five
stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13
original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis
for a number of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

Economy
Overview: The US has the most powerful and diversified economy in
the world, with a per capita GNP of over $21,000, the largest among the
major industrial nations. In 1989 the economy entered its eighth
successive year of growth, the longest in peacetime history. The
expansion has featured continued moderation in wage and consumer price
increases, an unemployment rate of 5.2%, (the lowest in 10 years), and an
inflation rate of 4.8%. On the negative side, the US enters the 1990s
with massive budget and trade deficits, huge and rapidly rising medical
costs, and inadequate investment in industrial capacity and economic
infrastructure.

GNP: $5,233.3 billion, per capita $21,082; real growth rate 2.9%
(1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1989)

Budget: revenues $976 billion; expenditures $1,137 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY89 est.)

Exports: $322.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–capital goods,
automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods,
agricultural products; partners–Canada 22.9%, Japan 11.8% (1988)

Imports: $440.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–crude and
partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial
raw materials, food and beverages; partners–Japan 19.6% , Canada 19.1%
(1988)

External debt: $532 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 2,958,300 million kWh produced,
11,920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified;
petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals,
electronics, food processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force;
favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock
production; world’s second-largest producer and number-one exporter of
grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.7 million metric tons
(1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic
consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons
or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program
aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

Aid: donor–commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $90.5 billion

Currency: United States dollar (plural–dollars);
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$–0.6055 (January
1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986),
0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$–1.1885 (February 1990),
1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986);

French francs (F) per US$–5.695 (February 1990), 5.9569 (1988),
6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985);

Italian lire (Lit) per US$–1,244.8 (February 1990),
1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);

Japanese yen (Y) per US$–145.55 (February 1990), 128.15 (1988),
144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985);

FRG deutsche marks (DM) per US$–1.6775 (February 1990),
1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Railroads: 270,312 km

Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive
of the Great Lakes (est.)

Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Cleveland,
Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville,
Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle,
Tampa, Wilmington

Merchant marine: 373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA
GRT/NA DWT); includes 2 passenger-cargo, 37 cargo, 22 bulk,
165 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 10 liquefied gas, 124
intermodal; in addition there are 248 government-owned vessels

Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft, including
2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

Airports: 15,422 in operation (1981)

Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations–4,892 AM, 5,200 FM
(including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including
796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable);
495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite earth
stations–45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine
Corps), Department of the Air Force

Military manpower: 2,247,000 total; 781,000 Army;
599,000 Air Force; 793,000 Navy (includes 200,000 Marine Corps) (1988)

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GNP, or $302.8 billion (1989)
.pa
Uruguay
Geography
Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted
beyond 12 nm)

Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two
short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the
Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 78% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

People
Population: 3,036,660 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Uruguayan(s); adjective–Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: 88% white, 8% mestizo, 4% black

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends
church regularly), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 30% nonprofessing or other

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 25% government, 19% manufacturing,
11% agriculture, 12% commerce, 12% utilities, construction, transport, and
communications, 21% other services (1988 est.)

Organized labor: Interunion Workers’ Assembly/National Workers’
Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

Government
Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular–departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro,
Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended
27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camera del Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Luis Alberto
LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since
1 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Roberto
Rubio; Colorado Party; Broad Front Coalition, Liber Seregni includes
Communist Party led by Jaime Perez and National Liberation Movement
(MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio Fernandez Huidobro; New Space
Coalition consists of the Party of the Government of the People (PGP)
led by Hugo Batalla, Christian Democratic Party (PDC), and Civic Union
led by Humberto Ciganda

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results–Luis Lacalle (Blanco) 37%, Jorge Batlle (Colorado)
29%, Liber Seregni (Broad Front) 20%;

Senate–last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results–Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%;
seats–(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Deputies–last held NA November 1989 (next to be held
November 1994);
results–Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, others 1%;
seats–(99 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 50,000

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan Podesta PINON; Chancery
at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313
through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles,
Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans;
US–Ambassador Malcolm R. WILKEY; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
(mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone Õ598å (2) 40-90-51

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating
with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow
sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately
triangular and wavy

Economy
Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of
1981-84. In 1986 real GDP grew by 6.6% and in 1987 by 4.9%. The recovery
was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture
alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and
generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock,
particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In
1988, despite healthy exports and an improved current account, domestic
growth slowed because of government concentration on the external sector,
adverse weather conditions, and prolonged strikes. High inflation rates
of about 80%, a large domestic debt, and frequent strikes remain major economic
problems for the government.

GDP: $8.8 billion, per capita $2,950; real growth rate 1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–hides and
leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%;
partners–Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–fuels and
lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial
chemicals; partners–Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

External debt: $6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate – 2.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 4,330 million kWh produced,
1,450 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear,
leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing; wheat,
rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $263 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $69 million

Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural–pesos);
1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1–832.62
(January 1990), 605.62 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67 (1987), 151.99 (1986),
101.43 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government owned

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km
earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212 GRT/116,613
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 container

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 92 total, 87 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo;
new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones; stations–99 AM, no FM,
26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 711,700; 580,898 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1986)
.pa
Vanuatu
Geography
Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more
than 80 islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundary: none

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 1%
forest and woodland; 91% other

Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April);
volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

People
Population: 165,006 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Vanuatuan(s); adjective–Vanuatuan

Ethnic divisions: 94% indigenous Melanesian, 4% French, remainder
Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

Religion: most at least nominally Christian

Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or
Bichelama)

Literacy: 10-20% (est.)

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions–largest include Oil and Gas
Workers’ Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers’ Union

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

Type: republic

Capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo,
Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo,
Shepherd, Tafea

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and
British systems

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note–the National Council of
Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since
30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanua’aku Pati),
Walter Lini; Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine Carlot;
Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak Sope

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament–last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held NA);
byelections were held NA December 1988 to fill vacancies resulting from
the expulsion of opposition members for boycotting sessions;
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(46 total) National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19,
independent 1

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC,
IMF, ITU, NAM, SPF, UN, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in
Washington;
US–the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a
black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a
black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two
points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar’s tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

Economy
Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming that
provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the
other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has
no known petroleum deposits. A small light-industry sector caters to the local
market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.

GDP: $120 million, per capita $820; real growth rate 0.7% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $80.1 million; expenditures $86.6 million, including
capital expenditures of $27.1 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–copra 37%,
cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%; partners–Netherlands 34%, France
27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–machines and
vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and
fuels 11%, chemicals 6%;
partners–Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5% (1987)

External debt: $57 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 20 million kWh produced,
125 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat canning

Agriculture: export crops–copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish; subsistence
crops–copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $541 million

Currency: vatu (plural–vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1–107.17 (January 1990), 116.04 (1989),
104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986), 106.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: none

Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads

Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 885,668
GRT/1,473,443 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 21 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note–a flag
of convenience registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 33 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: a paramilitary force is responsible for internal and external
security; no military forces

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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Vatican City
Geography
Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: urban

Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world’s smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope’s summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

People
Population: 774 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also many other nationalities

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: about 1,500; Vatican City employees divided into three
categories–executives, office workers, and salaried employees

Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

Government
Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note–the Vatican City is the
physical seat of the Holy See which is the central government of the Roman
Catholic Church

Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II),
22 October (1978); note–Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Executive branch: pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol
WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Elections:
Pope–last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of
the current pope);
results–Karol Wojtyla was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

Member: IAEA, INTELSAT, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, UPU,
WIPO, WTO; permanent observer status at FAO, OAS, UN, and UNESCO

Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Pio LAGHI;
3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121;
US–Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli,
Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794);
telephone Õ396å 639-0558

Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed
keys of St. Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: The economy is supported financially by contributions (known as
Peter’s pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage
stamps, tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of
publications.

Budget: revenues $57 million; expenditures $113.7 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1989); power supplied by Italy

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and
staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Currency: Vatican lira (plural–lire);
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1–1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);
note–the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome
station of St. Peter’s)

Highways: none; all city streets

Telecommunications: stations–3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic
telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are
posted at entrances to the Vatican City
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Venezuela
Geography
Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km,
Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Essequibo area of Guyana; maritime boundary disputes with
Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela and with Trinidad and Tobago in the
Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest;
central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other
minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures;
39% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic
droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

People
Population: 19,698,104 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Venezuelan(s); adjective–Venezuelan

Ethnic divisions: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 10% black, 2% Indian

Religion: 96% nominally Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior

Literacy: 85.6%

Labor force: 5,800,000; 56% services, 28% industry, 16% agriculture (1985)

Organized labor: 32% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

Type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular–estado),
2 territories* (territorios, singular–territorio), 1 federal district**
(distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal);
Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes,
Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon,
Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre,
Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note–the federal dependence consists of
11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative
acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Carlos Andres
PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Party (COPEI),
Eduardo Fernandez, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD),
Gonzalo Barrios, president, and Humberto Celli, secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Teodoro Petkoff, president, and
Freddy Munoz, secretary general

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly enforced

Elections:
President–last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993);
results–Carlos Andres Perez (AD) 53%,
Eduardo Fernandez (COPEI) 40%, others 7%;

Senate–last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, others 4;

Chamber of Deputies–last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results–AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, others 14.6%;
seats–(201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, others 19

Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic
Action-dominated labor organization

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, WFTU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI
Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US–Ambassador-designate Eric JAVITS; Embassy at Avenida Francisco
de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address
is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037);
telephone Õ58å (2) 284-6111 or 7111; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the
coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white
five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

Economy
Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted
for 17% of GDP, 52% of central government revenues, and 81% of export
earnings in 1988. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment
program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and
price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest
rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8%
decline in GDP.

GDP: $52.0 billion, per capita $2,700; real growth rate – 8.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80.7% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–petroleum
81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures;
partners–US 50.3%, FRG 5.3%, Japan 4.1% (1988)

Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–foodstuffs,
chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment;
partners–US 44%, FRG 8.5%, Japan 6%, Italy 5%, Brazil 4.4% (1987)

External debt: $33.6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.7%, excluding oil (1988)

Electricity: 19,110,000 kW capacity; 54,516 million kWh produced,
2,830 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food
processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 15% of labor force;
products–corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef,
pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca for the
international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities
of cocaine and marijuana do transit the country

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $10 million

Currency: bolivar (plural–bolivares);
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1–43.42 (January 1990),
34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833 (1986),
7.5000 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single
track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km
earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept
oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products;
4,010 km natural gas

Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello,
Puerto Ordaz

Merchant marine: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 997,458
GRT/1,615,155 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 28 cargo,
2 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 11 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier,
1 combination bulk, 1 combination ore/oil

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

Airports: 306 total, 278 usable; 134 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
92 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones;
stations–181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (Navy, Marines, Coast Guard),
Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,073,913; 3,680,176 fit for military
service; 211,269 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP, or $570 million (1990 est.)
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Vietnam
Geography
Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km,
Laos 1,555 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with
Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with
China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; maritime boundary dispute with China
in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by
Vietnam and Taiwan

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
(mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands;
hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil deposits, forests

Land use: 22% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
40% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

People
Population: 66,170,889 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Vietnamese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Vietnamese

Ethnic divisions: 85-90% predominantly Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic
minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes

Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs,
Islamic, Protestant

Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal
languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 35,000,000 (1989 est.)

Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are
members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

Government
Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

Type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces (tinh, singular and plural),
3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang,
Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Tri Thien, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dac Lac, Dong Nai,
Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Cong Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh,
Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*,
Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai, Nghe Tinh,
Nghia Binh, Phu Khanh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ninh, Song Be, Son La,
Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Pu,
Vung Tau-Con Dao; note–diacritical marks are not included; the number
of provinces may have been changed with the elimination of
Binh Tri Thien, Nghia Binh, and Phu Khanh and the addition of Binh Dinh,
Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

Constitution: 18 December 1980

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of State,
chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc Hoi)

Judicial branch: Supreme People’s Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since
18 June 1987);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Do MUOI
(since 22 June 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party– Vietnam Communist Party
(VCP), Nguyen Van Linh

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held 19 April 1987
(next to be held April 1992);
results–VCP is the only party;
seats–(496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

Communists: nearly 2 million

Member of: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IRC, ITU, Mekong
Committee, NAM, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

Economy
Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with
extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities.
The economy is primarily agricultural, employing about 65% of the labor
force and accounting for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple crop;
substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are
also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open
market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north,
including coal, which is an important export item. Following the
end of the war in 1975, heavy handed government measures undermined
efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the
south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains
heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from
Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down
from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness, and per
capita output is among the world’s lowest. Since early 1989 the
government has sponsored a broad reform program that seeks to turn more
economic activity over to the private sector.

GNP: $14.2 billion, per capita $215; real growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $528 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–agricultural and
handicraft products, coal, minerals, ores; partners–USSR, Eastern Europe,
Japan, Singapore

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–petroleum,
steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton,
fertilizer, grain; partners–USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

External debt: $16 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989)

Electricity: 2,465,000 kW capacity; 6,730 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining,
cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up
50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas)
and animal products other 50%; not self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish
catch of 900,000 metric tons (1988 est.)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$2.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist
countries (1970-88), $10.9 million

Currency: new dong (plural–new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1–4,000 (March 1990),
900 (1988), 225 (1987), 18 (1986), 12 (1985); note–1985-89 figures
are end of year

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to
service

Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km gravel or
improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 150 km, refined products

Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable
at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City

Merchant marine: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,123 GRT/432,152
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 55 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 1 bulk; note–Vietnam owns 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 111,028 DWT under the registry of Panama and Malta

Civil air: controlled by military

Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984);
stations–16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio receivers;
at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,707,629; 10,030,563 fit for military
service; 787,444 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.)
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Virgin Islands
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 188 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low
humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

Land use: 15% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 26% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 47% other

Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe
droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources

Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east of
Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage–a key shipping lane for the Panama
Canal; St. Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the
Caribbean

People
Population: 99,200 (July 1990), growth rate – 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 20 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Virgin Islander(s); adjective–Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: 74% West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29%
born elsewhere in the West Indies), 13% US mainland, 5% Puerto Rican, 8% other;
80% black, 15% white, 5% other; 14% of Hispanic origin

Religion: 42% Baptist, 34% Roman Catholic, 17% Episcopalian, 7% other

Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely spoken

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 45,000 (1987)

Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force

Government
Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States

Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Capital: Charlotte Amalie

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the
constitution

Legal system: based on US

National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March (1917)

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Senate

Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over $50,000,
felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases; Territorial
Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims, juvenile, domestic,
misdemeanors, and traffic cases

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President George
BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander FARRELLY
(since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since 5 January 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn Stapleton;
Independent Citizens’ Movement (ICM), Virdin Brown; Republican Party,
Charlotte-Poole Davis

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens,
but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor–last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990);
results–Alexander Farrelly (Democratic Party) defeated
Adelbert Bryan (ICM);

Senate–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results–the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the
large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding
an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed
shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

Economy
Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for
more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists
of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants.
The agricultural sector is small with most food imported. International
business and financial services are a small but growing component of the
economy. The world’s largest petroleum refinery is at St. Croix.

GDP: $1.03 billion, per capita $9,030; real growth rate NA% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $315 million; expenditures $322 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1985); commodities–refined
petroleum products; partners–US, Puerto Rico

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities–crude oil,
foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials; partners–US, Puerto Rico

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 12%

Electricity: 341,000 kW capacity; 507 million kWh produced,
4,650 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, government service, petroleum refining, watch
assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum,
Senepol cattle

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $33.5 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: 856 km total

Ports: St. Croix–Christiansted, Frederiksted; St. Thomas–Long Bay,
Crown Bay, Red Hook; St. John–Cruz Bay

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m; international airports on St. Thomas and St. Croix

Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations–4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV;
modern system using fiber optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio, and
satellite facilities; 90,000 radio receivers; 56,000 television sets

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Wake Island
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 19.3 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands

Climate: tropical

Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano;
central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation
less than four meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons

Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana
Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific flights

People
Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants;
temporary population consists of 11 US Air Force personnel,
27 US civilians, and 151 Thai contractors

Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during
the Vietnam conflict

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force
(under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972

Flag: the US flag is used

Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US
military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

Communications
Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore
anchorages for large ships

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,987 m

Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway
to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite;
stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only
by US military and some commercial cargo planes

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Wallis and Futuna
(overseas territory of France)
Geography
Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 129 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool,
dry season (May to October)

Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 5% arable land; 20% permanent crops;
0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs

Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean
about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

People
Population: 14,910 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna
Islanders; adjective–Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian

Religion: largely Roman Catholic

Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Mata-Utu

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note–there are
three traditional kings with limited powers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly
(Assemblee Territoriale)

Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French
law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings
administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government–Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC
(since 15 July 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR);
Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la Democratie Francaise
(UDF)

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Territorial Assembly–last held 15 March 1987
(next to be held March 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(20 total) RPR 7, UDF coalition 7, UPL 6;

French Senate–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) party of the representative is NA;

French National Assembly–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) RPR 1

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France, local
interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: The economy is limited to subsistence agriculture.
The majority of the labor force earns its livelihood from agriculture,
raising livestock, and fishing, with the rest employed by the government sector.
Exports are negligible. The Territory has to import food, fuel, and construction
materials, and is dependent on budgetary support from France to meet recurring
expenses. The economy also benefits from cash remittances from expatriate
workers.

GDP: $6.7 million, per capita $484; real growth rate NA% (est. 1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $NA; commodities–copra; partners–NA

Imports: $3.4 million (c.i.f., 1977); commodities–largely
foodstuffs and some equipment associated with development programs;
partners–France, Australia, New Zealand

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of
yams, taro, bananas

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $118 million

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural–francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1–104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987),
125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note–linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French
franc

Fiscal year: NA

Communications
Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), 16 km sealed;
20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna (Futuna Island)

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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West Bank
Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with
Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President
Reagan’s 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace
treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned
parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the
respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy
that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be
determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the
area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967
Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made between
Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city’s special status
and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of
Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the West
Bank.

Geography
Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank,
East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man’s Land, and the northwest
quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude,
warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but
barren in east

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 27% arable land, 0% permanent crops, 32% meadows and pastures,
1% forest and woodland, 40% other

Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel’s coastal
aquifers

Note: landlocked; there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank
and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

People
Population: 1,058,122 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990);
in addition, there are 70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
110,000 in East Jerusalem (1989 est.)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: NA

Ethnic divisions: 88% Palestinian Arab and other, 12% Jewish

Religion: 80% Muslim (predominantly Sunni), 12% Jewish, 8% Christian
and other

Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers–29.8% small industry,
commerce, and business, 24.2% construction, 22.4% agriculture, 23.6% service
and other (1984)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: none

Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities
and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
These negotiations will determine how the area is to be governed.

Economy
Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli
military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising. Industries
using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial resources have been
discouraged by a lack of financial resources and Israeli policy. Capital
investment has largely gone into residential housing, not into productive assets
that could compete with Israeli industry. A major share of GNP is derived from
remittances of workers employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states. Israeli
reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West Bank since 1987 have pushed
unemployment up and lowered living standards.

GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate – 15% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–NA;
partners–Jordan, Israel

Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–NA;
partners–Jordan, Israel

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
and dairy products

Aid: none

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural–shekels) and Jordanian dinar
(plural–dinars); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and 1 Jordanian
dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1–1.9450 (January
1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5992 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788
(1985); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1–0.6557 (January 1990), 0.5704 (1989),
0.3715 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: small indigenous road network, Israelis developing east-west
axial highways

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded;
stations–no AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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Western Sahara
Geography
Total area: 266,000 km2; land area: 266,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km,
Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

Disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is
unresolved and guerrilla fighting continues in the area

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents
produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or
sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 81% other

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during
winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely
restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land

People
Population: 191,707 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 23 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 177 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); adjective–Saharan, Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber

Religion: Muslim

Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: 20% among Moroccans, 5% among Saharans (est.)

Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved;
territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the
Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro); territory partitioned between
Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern
two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all
claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector
shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the
Polisario’s government in exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla
activities continue to the present

Capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Leaders: none

Diplomatic representation: none

Economy
Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources
and having little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of just a few hundred
dollars. Fishing and phosphate mining are the principal industries and
sources of income. Most of the food for the urban population must be
imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the
Moroccan Government.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.);
commodities–phosphates 62%; partners–Morocco claims and
administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall
Moroccan accounts

Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.); commodities–fuel for
fishing fleet, foodstuffs; partners–Morocco claims and administers
Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced,
425 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate, fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: practically none; some barley is grown in nondrought years;
fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food imports are essential;
camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists
largely for the garrison forces

Aid: NA

Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural–dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1–8.093 (January 1990),
8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

Communications
Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and
unimproved earth roads and tracks

Ports: El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla

Airports: 16 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco’s system
by radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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Western Samoa
Geography
Total area: 2,860 km2; land area: 2,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season
(May to October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged
mountains in interior

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 19% arable land; 24% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 47% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

Note: located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

People
Population: 186,031 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Western Samoan(s); adjective–Western Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan; about 7% Euronesians (persons of European
and Polynesian blood), 0.4% Europeans

Religion: 99.7% Christian (about half of population associated with the
London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist,
Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 37,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1983 est.)

Organized labor: Public Service Association (PSA)

Government
Long-form name: Independent State of Western Samoa

Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

Capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; Aana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua,
Faasaleleaga, Gagaemauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupaitea, Tuamasaga,
Vaa-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered
by New Zealand)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial
review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 1 June

Executive branch: monarch, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State–Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963);

Head of Government–Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April
1988)

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP),
Tofilau Eti, chairman; Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), Tupua
Tamasese Efi, chairman

Suffrage: there are two electoral rolls–the matai (head of family)
roll and the individuals roll; about 12,000 persons are on the matai roll,
hold matai titles, and elect 45 members of the Legislative Assembly; about
1,600 persons are on the individuals roll, lack traditional matai ties, and
elect two members of the Legislative Assembly by universal adult suffrage
at the age of NA

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held 26 February 1988
(next to be held by February 1991);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(47 total) HRPP 25, SNDP 22

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IMF, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe
WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at the Western Samoan Mission to the UN,
820 2nd Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196;
US–the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing
five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

Economy
Overview: Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, contributes
50% to GDP, and is the source of 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings
comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends
on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports about
five times export earnings. Tourism has become the most important
growth industry, and construction of the first international hotel is under way.

GDP: $112 million, per capita $615; real growth rate 0.2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%; shortage of skilled labor

Budget: revenues $54 million; expenditures $54 million,
including capital expenditures of $28 million (1988)

Exports: $9.9 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–coconut oil
and cream 42%, taro 19%, cocoa 14%, copra, timber;
partners–NZ 30%, EC 24%, Australia 21%, American Samoa 7%,
US 9% (1987)

Imports: $51.8 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–intermediate
goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%; partners–New Zealand 31%,
Australia 20%, Japan 15%, Fiji 15%, US 5%, EC 4% (1987)

External debt: $75 million (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 4.0% (1987)

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $16 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $261
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

Currency: tala (plural–tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1–2.2857 (January 1990), 2.2686
(1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987), 2.2351 (1986), 2.2437 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel,
crushed stone, or earth

Ports: Apia

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,930 GRT/34,135
DWT; includes 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 7,500 telephones; 70,000 radio receivers;
stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT station

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
World
Geography
Total area: 510,072,000 km2; 361,132,000 km2 (70.8%) is water and
148,940,000 km2 (29.2%) is land

Comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 442,000 km

Coastline: 359,000 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: generally 24 nm, but varies from 4 nm to 24 nm;

Continental shelf: generally 200 nm, but some are 200 meters
in depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: most are 200 nm, but varies from
12 nm to 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm, only Madagascar claims 150 nm;

Territorial sea: generally 12 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 200 nm

Disputes: 13 international land boundary disputes–Argentina-Uruguay,
Bangladesh-India, Brazil-Paraguay, Brazil-Uruguay, Cambodia-Vietnam,
China-India, China-USSR, Ecuador-Peru, El Salvador-Honduras,
French Guiana-Suriname, Guyana-Suriname, Guyana-Venezuela, Qatar-UAE

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow
temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest
elevation is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth
is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

Natural resources: the oceans represent the last major frontier for the
discovery and development of natural resources

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 24% meadows and
pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 1.6% irrigated

Environment: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones),
natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions),
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances),
loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of
wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

People
Population: 5,316,644,000 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 70 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Literacy: 77% men; 66% women (1980)

Labor force: 1,939,000,000 (1984)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Administrative divisions: 248 nations, dependent areas, and other
entities

Legal system: varies among each of the entities; 162 are parties to the
United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court

Diplomatic representation: there are 159 members of the UN

Economy
Overview: In 1989 the World economy grew at an estimated 3.0%,
somewhat lower than the estimated 3.4% for 1988. The technologically advanced
areas–North America, Japan, and Western Europe–together account for
65% of the gross world product (GWP) of $20.3 trillion; these developed
areas grew in the aggregate at 3.5%. In contrast, the Communist (Second
World) countries typically grew at between 0% and 2%, accounting for 23% of GWP.
Experience in the developing countries continued mixed, with the newly
industrializing countries generally maintaining their rapid growth, and many
others struggling with debt, inflation, and inadequate investment. The year
1989 ended with remarkable political upheavals in the Communist
countries, which presumably will dislocate economic production still further.
The addition of nearly 100 million people a year to an already overcrowded
globe will exacerbate the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, and poverty throughout the 1990s.

GWP (gross world product): $20.3 trillion, per capita $3,870; real growth
rate 3.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5%, developed countries; 100%,
developing countries with wide variations (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Exports: $2,694 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–NA;
partners–in value, about 70% of exports from industrial countries

Imports: $2,750 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–NA;
partners–in value, about 75% of imports by the industrial countries

External debt: $1,008 billion for less developed countries (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,838,680,000 kW capacity; 11,222,029 million kWh produced,
2,140 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: chemicals, energy, machinery, electronics, metals, mining,
textiles, food processing

Agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize, rice), sugar, livestock products,
tropical crops, fruit, vegetables, fish

Aid: NA

Communications
Ports: Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe,
Marseille, New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

Defense Forces
Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of
technology

Military manpower: 29.15 million persons in the defense forces
of the World (1987)

Defense expenditures: 5.4% of GWP, or $1.1 trillion (1989 est.)
.pa
Yemen Arab Republic
ÕYemen (Sanaa) or North Yemenå
Geography
Total area: 195,000 km2; land area: 195,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 1,209 km total; Saudi Arabia 628 km, PDRY 581 km

Coastline: 523 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of the boundary with PDRY are indefinite or
undefined; undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; hot and humid along coast; temperate in central
mountains; harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain (Tihama); western mountains; flat
dissected plain in center sloping into desert interior of Arabian Peninsula

Natural resources: crude oil, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal,
nickel, and copper; fertile soil

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 36% meadows and
pastures; 8% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to sand and dust storms in summer;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls northern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking Red Sea
and Gulf of Aden, one of world’s most active shipping lanes

People
Population: 7,160,981 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 129 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yemeni(s); adjective–Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Arab (mixed)

Religion: 100% Muslim (Sunni and Shia)

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 15% (est.)

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture and herding, 30% expatriate laborers
(est.)

Government
Long-form name: Yemen Arab Republic; abbreviated YAR

Type: republic; military regime assumed power in June 1974

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 11 governorates (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf,
Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hajjah, Ibb, Marib, Sadah, Sana,
Taizz

Independence: November 1918 (from Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 28 December 1970, suspended 19 June 1974

Legal system: based on Turkish law, Islamic law, and local customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 26 September (1962)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
four deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Consultative Assembly
(Majlis ash-Shura)

Judicial branch: State Security Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Col. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 18 July
1978); Vice President (vacant);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Abd al-Aziz ABD AL-GHANI
(since 12 November 1983, previously prime minister from 1975-1980 and
co-Vice President from October 1980 to November 1983)

Political parties and leaders: no legal political parties; in 1983
President Salih started the General People’s Congress, which is designed
to function as the country’s sole political party

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Consultative Assembly–last held 5 July 1988 (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(159 total, 128 elected)

Communists: small number

Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups,
Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions–pro-Iraqi Bathists,
Nasirists, National Democratic Front (NDF) supported by the PDRY

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohsin A. al-AINI; Chancery at
Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in
Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at address NA, Sanaa (mailing
address is P. O. Box 1088, Sanaa); telephone Õ967å (2) 271950 through 271958

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
large green five-pointed star centered in the white band; similar to the flags
of Iraq, which has three stars, and Syria, which has two stars–all green and
five-pointed in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to
the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: The low level of domestic industry and agriculture make North
Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential needs. Large trade
deficits are made up for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign
aid. Once self-sufficient in food production, the YAR is now a major importer.
Land once used for export crops–cotton, fruit, and vegetables–has been turned
over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no
significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late 1987
and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $820; real growth rate 19.7% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1986)

Budget: revenues $1.32 billion; expenditures $2.18 billion,
including capital expenditures of $588 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $853 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–crude oil,
cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables; partners–US 41%, PDRY 14%, Japan 12%

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–textiles and
other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour,
other foodstuffs, and cement; partners–Italy 10%, Saudi Arabia 9%,
US 9.3%, Japan 9%, UK 8% (1985)

External debt: $3.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988)

Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 500 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production, small-scale production of cotton
textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; fishing; small
aluminum products factory; cement

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm
products–grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee,
cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $354 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$248 million

Currency: Yemeni riyal (plural–riyals); 1 Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1–9.7600 (January 1990),
9.7600 (1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 4,500 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 500 km crushed stone and
gravel, 2,000 km earth, sand, and light gravel (est.)

Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km

Ports: Al Hudaydah, Al Mukha, Salif, Ras al Katib

Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,679 GRT/40,640 DWT

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airports: 19 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system poor but improving; new radio relay and cable
networks; 50,000 telephones; stations–3 AM, no FM, 17 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
tropospheric scatter to PDRY; radio relay to PDRY, Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,289,217; 734,403 fit for military
service; 79,609 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $358 million (1987)
.pa
Yemen, People’s Democratic Republic of
ÕYemen (Aden) or South Yemenå
Geography
Total area: 332,970 km2; land area: 332,970 km2; includes Perim, Socotra

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 1,699 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 830 km,
YAR 581 km

Coastline: 1,383 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of boundary with YAR indefinite or undefined;
Administrative Line with Oman; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; extraordinarily hot and dry

Terrain: mostly upland desert plains; narrow, flat, sandy coastal
plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains

Natural resources: fish, oil, minerals (gold, copper, lead)

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures;
7% forest and woodland; 65% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: scarcity of natural freshwater resources; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking
Red Sea to Gulf of Aden, one of world’s most active shipping lanes

People
Population: 2,585,484 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yemeni(s); adjective–Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans

Religion: Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 25%

Labor force: 477,000; 45.2% agriculture, 21.2% services,
13.4% construction, 10.6% industry, 9.6% commerce and other (1983)

Organized labor: 348,200; the General Confederation of Workers of the
People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen has 35,000 members

Government
Long-form name: People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen; abbreviated PDRY

Type: republic

Capital: Aden

Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Mahrah, Hadramawt, Lahij,
Shabwah

Independence: 30 November 1967 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 October 1978

Legal system: based on Islamic law (for personal matters) and English
common law (for commercial matters)

National holiday: National Day, 14 October

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People’s Council

Judicial branch: Federal High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS
(since 8 February 1986);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister)
Dr. Yasin Said NUMAN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister
Salih Abu Bakr bin HUSAYNUN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister
Salih Munassir al-SIYAYLI (since 8 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP) is a coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Supreme People’s Council–last held 28-30 October 1986
(next to be held NA);
results–YSP is the only party;
seats–(111 total) YSP or YSP approved 111

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none; the UK acts as the protecting
power for the US in the PDRY

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
light blue, isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
five-pointed star

Economy
Overview: The PDRY is one of the poorest Arab countries, with a
per capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely
dispersed population, and an arid climate make economic development
difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3%
since the mid-1970s. The economy is organized along socialist lines,
dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been constrained by a
lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production
decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.

GNP: $1.2 billion, per capita $495; real growth rate 5.2% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $429 million; expenditures $976 million, including
capital expenditures of $402 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $82.2 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–cotton,
hides, skins, dried and salted fish; partners–Japan, YAR, Singapore

Imports: $598.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–grain,
consumer goods, crude oil, machinery, chemicals; partners–USSR,
Australia, UK

External debt: $2.25 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 600 million kWh produced,
240 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refinery (operates on imported crude oil); fish

Agriculture: accounts for 13% of GNP and 45% of labor force;
products–grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock;
fish and honey major exports; most food imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $4.5 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $241 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $279 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.2 billion

Currency: Yemeni dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1–0.3454 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 11,000 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 9,000 km natural
surface (est.)

Pipelines: refined products, 32 km

Ports: Aden, Al Khalf, Nishtun

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 42 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small system of open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor
cable, and radio communications stations; 15,000 telephones (est.);
stations–1 AM, no FM, 5 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT; radio relay and tropospheric scatter to YAR

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People’s Militia, People’s Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 544,190; 307,005 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Yugoslavia
Geography
Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km,
Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania
546 km

Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria
and Greece

Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy
winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography;
plain in north

Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore, antimony,
chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural gas, nickel,
uranium

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures;
36% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

Note: controls the most important land routes from
central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

People
Population: 23,841,608 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Yugoslav(s); adjective–Yugoslav

Ethnic divisions: 36.3% Serb, 19.7% Croat, 8.9% Muslim, 7.8% Slovene, 7.7%
Albanian, 5.9% Macedonian, 5.4% Yugoslav, 2.5% Montenegrin, 1.9% Hungarian, 3.9%
other (1981 census)

Religion: 50% Eastern Orthodox, 30% Roman Catholic, 9% Muslim,
1% Protestant, 10% other

Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official);
Albanian, Hungarian

Literacy: 90.5%

Labor force: 9,600,000; 22% agriculture, 27% mining and manufacturing;
about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

Organized labor: 6,200,000 members in the Confederation of Trade Unions of
Yugoslavia (SSJ)

Government
Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
abbreviated SFRY

Type: Communist state, federal republic in form

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 6 socialist republics (socijalisticke
republike, singular–socijalisticka republika); Bosna I Hercegovina,
Crna Gora, Hrvatska, Makedonija, Slovenija, Srbija; note–there are two
autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine, singular–autonomna pokajina)
named Kosovo and Vojvodina within Srbija

Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established
from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire,
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

Constitution: 21 February 1974

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

Executive branch: president of the Collective State Presidency,
vice president of the Collective State Presidency, Collective State Presidency,
president of the Federal Executive Council, two vice presidents of the Federal
Executive Council, Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces
and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court

Leaders:
Chief of State President of the Collective State Presidency
Borisav JOVIC (from Srbija; one-year term expires 15 May 1991);
Vice President of the Collective State Presidency–Stipe SUVAR (from
Hrvatska; one-year term expires 15 May 1991); note–the offices of
president and vice president rotate annually among members of the
Collective State Presidency with the current vice president assuming the
presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the
longest without filling the position (the current sequence is
Srbija, Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i
Hercegovina, and Slovenija);

Head of Government President of the Federal Executive Council
Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal
Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989);
Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL
(since 16 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: there are about 90 political
parties operating country-wide including the League of Communists
of Yugoslavia (LCY)

Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

Elections: direct national elections probably will be held in
late 1990

Communists: 2,079,013 party members (1988)

Other political or pressure groups: Socialist Alliance of Working People
of Yugoslavia (SAWPY), the major mass front organization; Confederation of
Trade Unions of Yugoslavia (CTUY), League of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia,
Federation of Veterans’ Associations of Yugoslavia (SUBNOR)

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, CEMA (observer but participates in certain
commissions), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OECD (participant in some activities),
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC; Chancery at
2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-6566;
there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago, Cleveland, New York,
Pittsburgh, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; Embassy at Kneza Milosa 50, Belgrade;
telephone Õ38å (11) 645-655; there is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red with a
large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the center over all
three bands

Economy
Overview: Tito’s reform programs 20 years ago changed the Stalinist
command economy to a decentralized semimarket system but a system that
the rigid, ethnically divided political structure ultimately could not
accommodate. A prominent feature of the reforms was the establishment
of workers’ self-management councils in all large plants, which were to
select managers, stimulate production, and divide the proceeds. The
general result of these reforms has been rampant wage-price inflation,
substantial rundown of capital plant, consumer shortages, and a still
larger income gap between the poorer southern regions and the relatively
affluent northern provinces of Hrvatska and Slovenija. In 1988-89 the
beleaguered central government has been reforming the reforms, trying
to create an open market economy with still considerable state
ownership of major industrial plants. These reforms have been moving
forward with the advice and support of the International Monetary Fund
through a series of tough negotiations. Self-management supposedly is
to be replaced by the discipline of the market and by fiscal austerity,
ultimately leading to a stable dinar. However, strikes in major plants,
hyperinflation, and interregional political jousting have held back
progress. According to US economic advisers, only a highly unlikely
combination of genuine privatization, massive Western economic
investment and aid, and political moderation can salvage this economy.

GNP: $129.5 billion, per capita $5,464; real growth rate – 1.0%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2,700% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Exports: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–

Complete Collection Of World Facts Volume 5 (1990)

Pakistan
Geography
Total area: 803,940 km2; land area: 778,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km,
India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary with India; Pashtun question with Afghanistan; Baloch
question with Afghanistan and Iran; water sharing problems with upstream
riparian India over the Indus

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
crude oil, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use: 26% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 64% other; includes 19% irrigated

Environment: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in
north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August);
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

People
Population: 114,649,406 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Pakistani(s); adjective–Pakistani

Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch,
Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

Religion: 97% Muslim (77% Sunni, 20% Shia), 3% Christian, Hindu, and
other

Language: Urdu and English (official); total spoken languages–64%
Punjabi, 12% Sindhi, 8% Pashtu, 7% Urdu, 9% Balochi and other; English is
lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries, but
official policies are promoting its gradual replacement by Urdu

Literacy: 26%

Labor force: 28,900,000; 54% agriculture, 13% mining and manufacturing,
33% services; extensive export of labor (1987 est.)

Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force

Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Type: parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 tribal area*, and 1 territory**;
Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad
Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh; note–the
Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region
includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977,
restored 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate
Pakistan’s stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic),
23 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Legislature (Mijlis-e-Shoora)
consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shariat) Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan (since 13 December 1988);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO (since 2 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders:
Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto;
Pakistan Muslim League (PML), former Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo;
PML is the main party in the anti-PPP Islamic Democratic Alliance (IDA);
Muhajir Quami Movement, Altaf Hussain; Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam
(JUI), Fazlur Rahman; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain Ahmed;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul Wali Khan

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993); results–Ghulam Ishaq Khan was elected by the Federal
Legislature;

Senate–last held March 1988 (next to be held March 1990);
results–elected by provincial assemblies;
seats–(87 total) PML 84, PPP 2, independent 1;

National Assembly–last held on 16 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(237 total) PPP 109, IJI 65, MQM 14, JUI 8, PAI 3, ANP 3, BNA 3,
others 3, independents 29

Communists: the Communist party is no longer outlawed and operates
openly

Other political or pressure groups: military remains dominant political
force; ulema (clergy), industrialists, and small merchants also influential

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OIC,
SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Zulfikar ALI KHAN; Chancery at
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200;
there is a Pakistani Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Robert B. OAKLEY; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5,
Islamabad (mailing address is P. O. Box 1048, Islamabad);
telephone Õ92å (51) 8261-61 through 79; there are US Consulates General
in Karachi and Lahore, and a Consulate in Peshawar

Flag: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large white
crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy
Overview: Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual
problems of rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits,
and heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support a
large military establishment and provide for the needs of 4 million Afghan
refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in recent years has enabled
the country to cope with these problems. Almost all agriculture and small-scale
industry is in private hands, and the government seeks to privatize a portion
of the large-scale industrial enterprises now publicly owned. In
December 1988, Pakistan signed a three-year economic reform agreement
with the IMF, which provides for a reduction in the government deficit
and a liberalization of trade in return for further IMF financial
support. The so-called Islamization of the economy has affected mainly the
financial sector; for example, a prohibition on certain types of interest
payments. Pakistan almost certainly will make little headway against its
population problem; at the current rate of growth, population would
double in 32 years.

GNP: $43.2 billion, per capita $409; real growth rate 5.1% (FY89)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: 4% (FY89 est.)

Budget: revenues $7.5 billion; expenditures $10.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.3 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities–rice, cotton,
textiles, clothing; partners–EC 31%, US 11%, Japan 11% (FY88)

Imports: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities–petroleum,
petroleum products, machinery, transportation, equipment, vegetable oils,
animal fats, chemicals; partners–EC 26%, Japan 15%, US 11% (FY88)

External debt: $17.4 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (FY89)

Electricity: 7,575,000 kW capacity; 29,300 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, petroleum products,
construction materials, clothing, paper products, international finance, shrimp

Agriculture: 24% of GNP, over 50% of labor force; world’s largest
contiguous irrigation system; major crops–cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
fruits, and vegetables; livestock products–milk, beef, mutton, eggs;
self-sufficient in food grain

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; government eradication efforts on poppy cultivation
of limited success; 1988 output of opium and hashish each estimated at about
200 metric tons

Aid: (including Bangladesh before 1972) US commitments, including Ex-Im
(FY70-88), $4.2 billion authorized (excluding what is now Bangladesh); Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $7.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.9 billion

Currency: Pakistani rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1–21.420 (January 1990),
20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987), 16.648 (1986), 15.928 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km meter
gauge, and 610 km narrow gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)

Highways: 101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km gravel,
29,000 km improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand tracks
(1985)

Pipelines: 250 km crude oil; 4,044 km natural gas; 885 km refined products
(1987)

Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 338,173
GRT/508,107 DWT; includes 4 passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft

Airports: 115 total, 102 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international radiocommunication service over
microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic radio communications poor; broadcast
service good; 564,500 telephones (1987); stations–16 AM, 8 FM, 16;
satellite eath station–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 26,215,898; 16,080,545 fit for military
service; 1,282,294 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 5.6% of GNP, or $2.4 billion (1989 est.)
.pa
Palmyra Atoll
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 11.9 km2; land area: 11.9 km2

Comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
100% forest and woodland; 0% other

Environment: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, almost halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa

People
Population: uninhabited

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage in West Lagoon

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Panama
Geography
Total area: 78,200 km2; land area: 75,990 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May
to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use: 6% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 15% meadows and
pastures; 54% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: dense tropical forest in east and northwest

Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that
links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

People
Population: 2,425,400 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Panamanian(s); adjective–Panamanian

Ethnic divisions: 70% mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry),
14% West Indian, 10% white, 6% Indian

Religion: over 93% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); 14% speak English as native tongue; many
Panamanians bilingual

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 770,472 (1987); 27.9% government and community services;
26.2% agriculture, hunting, and fishing; 16% commerce, restaurants, and hotels;
10.5% manufacturing and mining; 5.3% construction; 5.3% transportation and
communications; 4.2% finance, insurance, and real estate; 2.4% Canal Zone;
shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Organized labor: 17% of labor force (1986)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Panama

Type: centralized republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular–provincia)
and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon,
Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent
from Spain 28 November 1821)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema
de Justica) currently being reorganized

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Guillermo ENDARA
(since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Ricardo Arias CALDERON (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989);
Second Vice President Guillermo FORD (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
Government alliance–Authentic Liberal Party (PLA); faction of Authentic
Panamenista Party (PPA), Guillermo Endara; Christian Democrat Party
(PDC), Ricardo Arias Calderon; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement
(MOLIRENA), Alfredo Ramirez; former Noriegist parties–Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD, ex-official government party), Carlos Duque;
Labor Party (PALA), Ramon Sieiro Murgas; People’s Party (PdP,
Soviet-oriented Communist party), Ruben Dario Sousa Batista; Democratic
Workers Party; National Action Party (PAN);

other opposition parties–Popular Nationalist Party (PNP),
Olimpo A. Saez Maruci; factions of the former Liberal and Republican
parties; Popular Action Party (PAP), Carlos Ivan Zuniga; Socialist Workers
Party (PST, leftist), Jose Cambra; Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT, leftist),
Graciela Dixon

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President–last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld (next
to be held May 1994);
results–anti-Noriega coalition believed to have won about 75% of the
total votes cast;

Legislative Assembly–last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later
upheld; in process of reorganization (next to be held May 1994);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(67 total) the Electoral Tribunal has confirmed 58 of the
67 seats–PDC 27, MOLIRENA 15, PLA 6, Noriegist PRD 7, PPA 3;
legitimate holders of the other 9 seats cannot be determined and a
special election will be held

Communists: People’s Party (PdP), pro-Noriega regime mainline Communist
party, did not obtain the necessary 3% of the total vote in the 1984 election
to retain its legal status; about 3,000 members

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE)

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IRC, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International Wheat
Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eduardo VALLARINO;
Chancery at 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has
not yet been determined;
US–Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and
Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E,
APO Miami 34002); telephone Õ507å 27-1777

Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white
with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the
bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed
star in the center

Economy
Overview: The GDP contracted an estimated 7.5% in 1989, following a
drop of 20% in 1988. Political instability, lack of credit, and the
erosion of business confidence prompted declines of 20-70% in the
financial, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, and construction
sectors between 1987 and 1989. Transits through the Panama Canal were
off slightly, as were toll revenues. Unemployment remained about 23%
during 1989. Imports of foodstuffs and crude oil increased during 1989,
but capital goods imports continued their slide. Exports were widely
promoted by Noriega trade delegations, but sales abroad remained
stagnant.

GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $1,648; real growth rate – 7.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): – 0.1% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $598 million; expenditures $750 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–bananas 40%,
shrimp 27%, coffee 4%, sugar, petroleum products;
partners–US 90%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1989 est.)

Imports: $830 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–foodstuffs
16%, capital goods 9%, crude oil 16%, consumer goods, chemicals;
partners–US 35%, Central America and Caribbean, EC,
Mexico, Venezuela (1989 est.)

External debt: $5.2 billion (November 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 4.1% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,113,000 kW capacity; 3,270 million kWh produced,
1,380 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining,
brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills, paper products

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.), 26% of labor
force (1987); crops–bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock;
fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables, milk products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $515 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$568 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4 million

Currency: balboa (plural–balboas); 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1–1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter
gauge

Highways: 8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or crushed
stone, 2,515 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama
Canal

Pipelines: crude oil, 130 km

Ports: Cristobal, Balboa, Puerto de La Bahia de Las Minas

Merchant marine: 3,187 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
46,502,092 GRT/72,961,250 DWT; includes 34 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,087 cargo, 179 refrigerated cargo,
186 container, 71 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 136 vehicle carrier,
7 livestock carrier, 9 multifunction large-load carrier,
315 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 184 chemical tanker,
30 combination ore/oil, 91 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 767 bulk,
58 combination bulk; note–all but 5 are foreign owned and operated;
the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 41%, Greece 9%, Hong Kong 9%, and the
US 7% (China owns at least 144 ships, Yugoslavia 12, Cuba 6, and
Vietnam 9)

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 123 total, 112 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic and international facilities well developed;
connection into Central American Microwave System; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite
antennas; 220,000 telephones; stations–91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine
cable

Defense Forces
Branches: the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist as a
military institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama on
20 December 1989; President Endara is attempting to restructure the
forces, with more civilian control, under the new name of Panamanian
Public Forces (PPF)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 628,327; 433,352 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.0% of GDP (1987)
.pa
Papua New Guinea
Geography
Total area: 461,690 km2; land area: 451,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundary: 820 km with Indonesia

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber,
oil potential

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 1% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 71% forest and woodland; 28% other

Environment: one of world’s largest swamps along southwest coast;
some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes

Note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia

People
Population: 3,822,875 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Papua New Guinean(s); adjective–Papua New Guinean

Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian and Papuan; some Negrito,
Micronesian, and Polynesian

Religion: over half of population nominally Christian (490,000
Roman Catholic, 320,000 Lutheran, other Protestant sects); remainder indigenous
beliefs

Language: 715 indigenous languages; English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin
English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region

Literacy: 32%

Labor force: 1,660,000; 732,806 in salaried employment; 54% agriculture,
25% government, 9% industry and commerce, 8% services (1980)

Organized labor: more than 50 trade unions, some with fewer than 20
members

Government
Long-form name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu,
Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus,
Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian
administration)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, National Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (sometimes referred to
as the House of Assembly)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Vincent ERI (since 18 January 1990);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Rabbie NAMALIU (since 4 July 1988);
Deputy Prime Minister Akoko DOI (since 7 July 1988)

Political parties: Pangu Party, People’s Progress Party, United Party,
Papua Besena, National Party, Melanesian Alliance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Parliament–last held 13 June-4 July 1987 (next to be held
4 July 1992);
results–PP 14.7%, PDM 10.8%, PPP 6.1%, MA 5.6%, NP 5.1%, PAP 3.2%,
independents 42.9%, others 11.6%;
seats–(109 total) PP 26, PDM 17, NP 12, MA 7, PAP 6, PPP 5, independents 22,
others 14

Communists: no significant strength

Member of: ACP, ADB, ANRPC, CIPEC (associate), Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR; Chancery at
Suite 350, 1330 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 659-0856;
US–Ambassador-designate William FERRAND; Embassy at Armit
Street, Port
Moresby (mailing address is P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby); telephone
Õ675å 211-455 or 594, 654

Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle
is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is
black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation
centered

Economy
Overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and
the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a
subsistence livelihood for more than half of the population. Mining of
numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices help sustain the economy.

GDP: $3.26 billion, per capita $890; real growth rate 1.2% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1988)

Budget: revenues $962 million; expenditures $998 million,
including capital expenditures of $169 million (1988)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–gold, copper
ore, coffee, copra, palm oil, timber, lobster; partners–FRG, Japan,
Australia, UK, Spain, US

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–machinery and
transport equipment, fuels, food, chemicals, consumer goods;
partners–Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK

External debt: $2.5 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 397,000 kW capacity; 1,510 million kWh produced,
400 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra crushing, oil palm processing, plywood processing,
wood chip production, gold, silver, copper, construction, tourism

Agriculture: one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile
soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of crops; cash
crops–coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other products–tea, rubber, sweet
potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork; net importer of food for urban
centers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $38.8 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $5.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million

Currency: kina (plural–kina); 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1–1.1592 (December 1989), 1.1685 (1989),
1.1538 (1988), 1.1012 (1987), 1.0296 (1986), 1.0000 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed stone,
or stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 10,940 km

Ports: Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,675 GRT/27,954
DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 combination ore/oil, 2 bulk

Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 575 total, 455 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: services are adequate and being improved; facilities
provide radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio,
aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services; submarine
cables extend to Australia and Guam; 51,700 telephones (1985); stations–31 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 952,454; 529,570 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.3% of GDP, or $42 million (1989 est.)
.pa
Paracel Islands
Geography
Total area: undetermined

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: undetermined

Disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

Climate: tropical

Terrain: undetermined

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to typhoons

Note: located 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines

People
Population: no permanent inhabitants

Government
Long-form name: none

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Defense Forces
Note: occupied by China
.pa
Paraguay
Geography
Total area: 406,750 km2; land area: 397,300 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: 3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km,
Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute

Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay;
Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the
river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: local flooding in southeast (early September to June);
poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

People
Population: 4,660,270 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Paraguayan(s); adjective–Paraguayan

Ethnic divisions: 95% mestizo (Spanish and Indian), 5% white and Indian

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic; Mennonite and other Protestant denominations

Language: Spanish (official) and Guarani

Literacy: 81%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 44% agriculture, 34% industry and commerce,
18% services, 4% government (1986)

Organized labor: about 2% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Paraguay

Type: republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular–departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron,
Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canendiyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera,
Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari,
Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution 25 August 1967

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Andres
RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Juan Ramon Chaves;
Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo Laino; Christian Democratic
Party (PDC), Jorge Dario Cristaldo; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF),
Euclides Acevedo; Liberal Party (PL), Reinaldo Odone; Popular Colorado
Movement (MOPOCO), Miguel Angel Gonzalez Casabianca; Radical Liberal Party
(PLR), Emilio Forestieri; Popular Democratic Movement (MDP)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60

Elections:
President–last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held February 1993);
results–Gen. Rodriguez 75.8%, Domingo Laino 19.4%;

Senate–last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by May 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF 1;

Chamber of Deputies–last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1994);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2, PDC 1, PL 1, PLR 1

Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and Miguel Angel Soler faction (both
illegal); 3,000 to 4,000 (est.) party members and sympathizers in Paraguay,
very few are hard core; party beginning to return from exile is small and
deeply divided

Other political or pressure groups: Febrerista; Authentic Radical
Liberal; Christian Democratic Parties; Confederation of Workers (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcos MARTINEZ MENDIETA; Chancery
at 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-6960
through 6962; there are Paraguayan Consulates General in New Orleans and
New York, and a Consulate in Houston; US–Ambassador Timothy L. TOWELL;
Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion (mailing address is
C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO Miami 34036-0001); telephone Õ595å (21) 201-041
or 049

Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an
emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different
on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of
arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side
at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of
Liberty and the words Paz y Justica (Peace and Justice) capped
by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

Economy
Overview: The economy is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture,
including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GNP, employs about 45% of
the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has no known
significant mineral or petroleum resources, but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined
compared with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an
average annual rate of nearly 11%. During 1982-86 real GDP fell three
out of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and
foreign debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the
economy were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather
for crops, and weak international commodity prices for agricultural exports.
In 1987 the economy experienced a modest recovery because of improved weather
conditions and stronger international prices for key agricultural exports. The
recovery continued through 1988, with a bumper soybean crop and record cotton
production. The government, however, must follow through on promises of reforms
needed to deal with large fiscal deficits, growing debt arrearages,
and falling reserves.

GDP: $8.9 billion, per capita $1,970; real growth rate 5.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $609 million; expenditures $909 million,
including capital expenditures of $401 million (1988)

Exports: $1,020 million (registered f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities–cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee, tung oil,
meat products; partners–EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%,
US 6%

Imports: $1,010 million (registered c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities–capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and lubricants
19%, raw materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco 10%;
partners–Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

External debt: $2.9 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% (1987)

Electricity: 5,169,000 kW capacity; 15,140 million kWh produced,
3,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 50% of labor force; cash
crops–cotton, sugarcane; other crops–corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, cassava,
fruits, and vegetables; animal products–beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus
producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade with an estimated 300 hectares cultivated in 1988; important
transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US and Europe

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $168 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $994 million

Currency: guarani (plural–guaranies);
1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$1–1,200.20 (November 1989;
floated in February 1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989),
339.17 (1986), 306.67 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km
1.000-meter gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)

Highways: 21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and 19,698 km
earth

Inland waterways: 3,100 km

Ports: Asuncion

Merchant marine: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,735 GRT/26,043
DWT; includes 13 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker;
note–1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 873 total, 753 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 52 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity
microwave net; 78,300 telephones; stations–40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7 shortwave;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Paraguayan Army, Paraguayan Navy, Paraguayan Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,096,227; 798,750 fit for military
service; 49,791 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Peru
Geography
Total area: 1,285,220 km2; land area: 1,280,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center
(sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber,
fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 21% meadows and
pastures; 55% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic
activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world’s highest navigable
lake, with Bolivia

People
Population: 21,905,605 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Peruvian(s); adjective–Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: 45% Indian; 37% mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry); 15% white; 3% black, Japanese, Chinese, and other

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish and Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: 80% (est.)

Labor force: 6,800,000 (1986); 44% government and other services,
37% agriculture, 19% industry (1988 est.)

Organized labor: about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Peru

Type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
singular–departamento) and 1 constitutional province*
(provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad,
Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno,
San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution
because constituent assembly met in 1979, but Constitution actually took effect
the following year); reestablished civilian government with a popularly elected
president and bicameral legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President-elect Alberto FUJIMORI (since 10 June
1990; Vice President-elect Maximo San ROMAN (since 10 June 1990);
Vice President-elect Carlos GARCIA;
President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 1985);
First Vice President Luis Alberto SANCHEZ Sanchez (since 28 July 1985);
Second Vice President Luis Juan ALVA Castro (since 28 July 1985);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Guillermo LARCO Cox (since 3 October
1989)

Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(APRA), Alan Garcia Perez; United Left (IU), run by committee;
Democratic Front (FREDEMO), headed by Mario Vargas Llosa of the Liberty
Movement (ML), coalition also includes the Popular Christian Party (PPC),
Luis Bedoya Reyes and the Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando
Belaunde Terry; Socialist Left (ISO), Alfonso Barrantes Lingan

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results–Alberto Fujimori xx%, Mario Vargas Llosa xx%, others xx%;

Senate–last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(60 total) APRA 32, IU 15, AP 5, others 8;

Chamber of Deputies–last held 8 April 1990 (next to be held April
1995);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(180 total) APRA 107, IU 48, AP 10, others 15

Communists: Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), pro-Soviet,
2,000; other minor Communist parties

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, ASSIMER, CCC, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, INTERPOL, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ISO, ITU,
IWC–International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Cesar G. ATALA; Chancery at
1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 833-9860
through 9869); Peruvian Consulates General are located in Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US–Ambassador Anthony QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of
Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing address
is P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1010, or APO Miami 34031); telephone Õ51å (14) 338-000

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with
the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield
bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia
spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

Economy
Overview: The economy is verging on hyperinflation and economic activity
is contracting rapidly. Deficit spending is at the root of domestic economic
problems, but poor relations with international lenders–the result of
curtailing debt payments since 1985–are preventing an inflow of funds to
generate a recovery. Reduced standards of living have increased labor tensions,
and strikes, particularly in the key mining sector, have cut production and
exports. Foreign exchange shortages have forced reductions in vital consumer
imports such as food and industrial inputs. Peru is the world’s leading producer
of coca, from which the drug cocaine is produced.

GDP: $18.9 billion, per capita $880; real growth rate – 12.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2,775% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.0%; underemployment estimated at 60% (1989)

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $796 million (1986)

Exports: $3.55 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–fishmeal,
cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore, refined silver, lead, zinc, crude
petroleum and byproducts; partners–EC 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%,
Latin America 8%, USSR 4%

Imports: $2.50 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–foodstuffs,
machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals; partners–US 23%, Latin America 16%, EC 12%, Japan 7%,
Switzerland 3%

External debt: $17.7 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate – 25.0% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 4,867,000 kW capacity; 15,540 million kWh produced,
725 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, 37% of labor force; commercial
crops–coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops–rice, wheat, potatoes,
plantains, coca; animal products–poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not
self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 4.6 million
metric tons (1987), world’s fifth-largest

Illicit drugs: world’s largest coca producer and source of supply
for coca paste and cocaine base; about 85% of cultivation is for
illicit production; most of coca base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.7 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $577 million

Currency: inti (plural–intis); 1 inti (I/) = 1,000 soles

Exchange rates: intis (I/) per US$1–5,261.40 (December 1989),
128.83 (1988), 16.84 (1987), 13.95 (1986), 10.97 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1,876 km total; 1,576 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 300 km
0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 11,865 km gravel, 14,610 km
improved earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system
and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids, 64 km

Ports: Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara

Merchant marine: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 341,213 GRT/535,215
DWT; includes 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 8 bulk;
note–in addition, 7 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used
commercially

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 242 total, 226 usable; 35 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide
radio relay system; 544,000 telephones; stations–273 AM, no FM, 140 TV,
144 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations, 12 domestic antennas

Defense Forces
Branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de
Guerra del Peru), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,543,166; 3,751,077 fit for military
service; 236,814 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 4.9% of GNP (1987)
.pa
Philippines
Geography
Total area: 300,000 km2; land area: 298,170 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Natural resources: timber, crude oil, nickel, cobalt, silver,
gold, salt, copper

Land use: 26% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck
by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active
volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

People
Population: 66,117,284 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Filipino(s); adjective–Philippine

Ethnic divisions: 91.5% Christian Malay, 4% Muslim Malay, 1.5% Chinese, 3%
other

Religion: 83% Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant, 5% Muslim, 3% Buddhist and
other

Language: Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English; both official

Literacy: 88% (est.)

Labor force: 22,889,000; 47% agriculture, 20% industry and commerce,
13.5% services, 10% government, 9.5% other (1987)

Organized labor: 2,064 registered unions; total membership 4.8 million
(includes 2.7 million members of the National Congress of Farmers Organizations)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Philippines

Type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra,
Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora,
Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes,
Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*,
Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*,
Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite,
Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*,
Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*,
Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte,
Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*,
Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*,
Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque,
Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental,
Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental,
North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*,
Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan,
Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*,
Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan),
San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato,
Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte,
Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi,
Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte,
Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Corazon C. AQUINO
(since 25 February 1986); Vice President Salvador H. LAUREL (since 25 February
1986)

Political parties and leaders: PDP-Laban, Aquilino Pimentel; Struggle of
Philippine Democrats (LDP), Neptali Gonzales; Nationalista Party, Salvador
Laurel, Juan Ponce Enrile; Liberal Party, Jovito Salonga

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President–last held 7 February 1986 (next election to be
held May 1992); results–Corazon C. Aquino elected after the fall of the
Marcos regime;

Senate–last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1993);
results–Pro-Aquino LDP 63%, Liberals LDP and
PDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 25%, Opposition Nationalista Party 4%,
independents 8%;
seats–(24 total) Pro-Aquino LDP 15, Liberals
LDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 6, Opposition 1, independents 2;

House of Representatives–last held on 11 May 1987 (next to be
held May 1992);
results–Pro-Aquino LDP 73%, Liberals LDP and PDP-Laban
(Pimentel wing) 10%, Opposition Nationalista Party 17%;
seats–(250 total, 180 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) controls
about 18,000-23,000 full-time insurgents and is not recognized as a legal
party; a second Communist party, the pro-Soviet Philippine Communist
Party (PKP), has quasi-legal status

Member of: ADB, ASEAN, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Emmanuel PELAEZ; Chancery at
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-1414;
there are Philippine Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle;
US–Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
(mailing address is APO San Francisco 96528); telephone Õ63å (2) 521-7116;
there is a US Consulate in Cebu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a
yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and
in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star

Economy
Overview: The economy continues to recover from the political turmoil
following the ouster of former President Marcos and several coup attempts.
After two consecutive years of economic contraction (1984 and 1985), the
economy has since 1986 had positive growth. The agricultural sector,
together with forestry and fishing, plays an important role in the economy,
employing about 50% of the work force and providing almost 30% of GDP. The
Philippines is the world’s largest exporter of coconuts and coconut products.
Manufacturing contributed about 25% of GDP. Major industries include food
processing, chemicals, and textiles.

GNP: $40.5 billion, per capita $625; real growth rate 5.2% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.6% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.7% (1989)

Budget: $7.2 billion; expenditures $8.12 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.97 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: revenues $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities–electrical equipment 19%, textiles 16%, minerals
and ores 11%, farm products 10%, coconut 10%, chemicals 5%, fish 5%,
forest products 4%; partners–US 36%, EC 19%, Japan 18%,
ESCAP 9%, ASEAN 7%

Imports: $10.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–raw materials
53%, capital goods 17%, petroleum products 17%; partners–US 25%,
Japan 17%, ESCAP 13%, EC 11%, ASEAN 10%, Middle East 10%

External debt: $27.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.3% (1989)

Electricity: 6,700,000 kW capacity; 25,000 million kWh produced,
385 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products,
food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GNP and 50% of labor force;
major crops–rice, coconut, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, mango; animal
products–pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2
million metric tons annually

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis
despite government eradication efforts

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $3.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1975-88), $123
million

Currency: Philippine peso (plural–pesos);
1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1–22.464 (January 1990),
21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988), 20.568 (1987), 20.386 (1986), 18.607 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)

Highways: 156,000 km total (1984); 29,000 km paved; 77,000 km gravel,
crushed-stone, or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)
vessels

Pipelines: refined products, 357 km

Ports: Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila,
Subic Bay

Merchant marine: 595 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,134,924
GRT/15,171,692 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger,
16 passenger-cargo, 166 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 30 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 7 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 container, 36 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas,
3 combination ore/oil, 282 bulk, 5 combination bulk; note–many
Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register for the
purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original owners who
are principally in Japan and FRG

Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

Airports: 301 total, 237 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international radio and submarine cable services;
domestic and interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; stations–267 AM
(including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine cables extended to
Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; satellite earth stations–1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 11 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Constabulary–Integrated
National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,160,543; 11,417,451 fit for military
service; 684,976 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP, or $850 million (1990 est.)
.pa
Pitcairn Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
Geography
Total area: 47 km2; land area: 47 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons (especially November to March)

Note: located in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand

People
Population: 56 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Pitcairn Islander(s); adjective–Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic divisions: descendants of Bounty mutineers

Religion: 100% Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official); also a Tahitian/English dialect

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA; no business community in the usual sense; some public
works; subsistence farming and fishing

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, island magistrate

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council

Judicial branch: Island Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Governor and UK High Commissioner to New Zealand
Robin A. C. BYATT (since NA 1988);

Head of Government–Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Brian YOUNG (since NA 1985)

Political parties and leaders: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18 with three years residency

Elections:
Island Council–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a yellow
anchor

Economy
Overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming.
The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans.
Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue
are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts
to passing ships.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY87 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities–fruits, vegetables, curios;
partners–NA

Imports: $NA; commodities–fuel oil, machinery, building materials,
flour, sugar, other foodstuffs; partners–NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
4,410 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: postage stamp sales, handicrafts

Agriculture: based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of
fruits and vegetables grown; must import grain products

Aid: none

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural–dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1–1.6581 (January
1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6866 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: none

Highways: 6.4 km dirt roads

Ports: Bounty Bay

Airports: none

Telecommunications: 24 telephones; party line telephone service on the
island; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
.pa
Poland
Geography
Total area: 312,680 km2; land area: 304,510 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,980 km total; Czechoslovakia 1,309 km, GDR 456 km,
USSR 1,215 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver,
lead, salt

Land use: 46% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 13% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: plain crossed by a few north-flowing, meandering
streams; severe air and water pollution in south

Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain
and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

People
Population: 37,776,725 (July 1990), growth rate NEGL (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Pole(s); adjective–Polish

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrainian, 0.5% Byelorussian, less
than 0.05% Jewish

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% practicing),
5% Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other

Language: Polish

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 17,128,000 (1988); 36.5% industry and construction;
28.5% agriculture; 14.7% trade, transport, and communications;
20.3% government and other

Organized labor: trade union pluralism

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Poland

Type: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa,
singular–wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko-Biala,
Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk,
Gorzow Wielkopolski, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin,
Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza,
Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow,
Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz,
Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc,
Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

Constitution: the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952
will be replaced by a democratic Constitution before May 1991

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist
legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July (1952) will
probably be replaced by Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Sejm)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Gen. Wojciech JARUZELSKI (since
19 July 1989, Chairman of Council of State since 6 November 1985);

Head of Government–Premier Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI (since 24 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
Center-right agrarian parties–Polish Peasant Party (PSL, known
unofficially as PSL-Wilanowska), Gen. Franciszek Kaminski, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Solidarity, Josef Slisz, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Rebirth (formerly the United Peasant Party),
Kazimirrz Olrsiak, chairman;

Other center-right parties–National Party, Bronislaw Ekert,
chairman;
Christian National Union, Urrslaw Chnzanowski, chairman;
Christian Democratic Labor Party, Wladyslaw Sila Nowicki, chairman;
Democratic Party, Jerzy Jozwiak, chairman;

Center-left parties–Polish Socialist Party, Jan Jozef Lipski,
chairman;

Left-wing parties–Polish Socialist Party-Democratic Revolution;

Other–Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (formerly the
Communist Party or Polish United Workers’ Party/PZPR), Aleksander
Kwasnuewski, chairman;
Union of the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (breakaway
faction of the PZPR), Tadrusz Fiszbach, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Senate–last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(100 total) Solidarity 99, independent 1;

National Assembly–last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be
held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(460 total) Communists 173, Solidarity 161, Polish Peasant
Party 76, Democratic Party 27, Christian National Union 23; note–rules
governing the election limited Solidarity’s share of the vote to 35%
of the seats; future elections are to be freely contested

Communists: 70,000 members in the Communist successor party (1990)

Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), a nationalist group;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ),
populist program; Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs); Freedom and
Peace (WiP), a pacifist group; Independent Student Union (NZS)

Member of: CCC, CEMA, Council of Europe, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, ICES, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jan KINAST; Chancery at 2640 16th
Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are
Polish Consulates General in Chicago and New York;
US–Ambassador-designate Thomas SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje
Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is
APO New York 09213); telephone Õ48å 283041 through 283049; there is a US
Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red–a crowned
eagle is to be added; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which
are red (top) and white

Economy
Overview: The economy, except for the agricultural sector, had
followed the Soviet model of state ownership and control of the country’s
productive assets. About 75% of agricultural production had come from the
private sector and the rest from state farms. The economy has presented a
picture of moderate but slowing growth against a background of underlying
weaknesses in technology and worker motivation. GNP increased between 3%
and 6% annually during the period 1983-1986, but grew only 2.5% and 2.1%
in 1987 and 1988, respectively. Output dropped by 1.5% in 1989. The
inflation rate, after falling sharply from the 1982 peak of 100% to 22%
in 1986, rose to a galloping rate of 640% in 1989. Shortages of consumer
goods and some food items worsened in 1988-89. Agricultural products and
coal have remained the biggest hard currency earners, but manufactures
are increasing in importance. Poland, with its hard currency debt of
approximately $40 billion, is severely limited in its ability to import
much-needed hard currency goods. The sweeping political changes of 1989
disrupted normal economic channels and exacerbated shortages. In January
1990, the new Solidarity-led government adopted a cold turkey program for
transforming Poland to a market economy. The government moved to
eliminate subsidies, end artificially low prices, make the zloty
convertible, and, in general, halt the hyperinflation. These financial
measures are accompanied by plans to privatize the economy in stages.
Substantial outside aid will be needed if Poland is to make a successful
transition in the 1990s.

GNP: $172.4 billion, per capita $4,565; real growth rate – 1.6%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 640% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%; 215,000 (official number, mid-March 1990)

Budget: revenues $23 billion; expenditures $24 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1988)

Exports: $24.7 billion (f.o.b., 1987 est.);
commodities–machinery and equipment 63%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 14%; manufactured consumer goods 14%; agricultural and forestry
products 5% (1987 est.);
partners–USSR 25%, FRG 12%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1988)

Imports: $22.8 billion (f.o.b., 1987 est.);
commodities–machinery and equipment 36%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 35%; manufactured consumer goods 9%; agricultural and forestry
products 12%;
partners–USSR 23%, FRG 13%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 2.0% (1988)

Electricity: 31,390,000 kW capacity; 125,000 million kWh produced,
3,260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries,
chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter
of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor–bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries,
$2.1 billion (1954-88)

Currency: zloty (plural–zlotych); 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1–9,500.00 (January 1990),
1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987), 175.29 (1986), 147.14 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 27,245 km total; 24,333 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 397 km
1.524-meter broad gauge, 2,515 km narrow gauge; 8,986 km double track; 10,000 km
electrified; government owned (1986)

Highways: 299,887 km total; 130,000 km improved hard surface (concrete,
asphalt, stone block); 24,000 km unimproved hard surface (crushed stone,
gravel); 100,000 km earth; 45,887 km other urban roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1988)

Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 km for crude oil;
360 km for refined products (1987)

Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland
ports are Gliwice on Kanal Gliwice, Wroclaw on the Oder, and Warsaw
on the Vistula

Merchant marine: 234 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,957,534
GRT/4,164,665 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 93 cargo, 3 refrigerated
cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 105 bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–30 AM, 28 FM, 41 TV; 4 Soviet TV relays;
9,691,075 TV sets; 9,290,000 radio receivers; at least 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Ground Forces, National Air Defense Forces, Air Force Command,
Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,501,088; 7,503,477 fit for military
service; 292,769 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 954 billion zlotych, NA% of total budget (1989);
note–conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
.pa
Portugal
Geography
Total area: 92,080 km2; land area: 91,640 km2; includes Azores and
Madeira Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundary: 1,214 km with Spain

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Macau is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region
of China in 1999; East Timor question with Indonesia

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore,
uranium ore, marble

Land use: 32% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People
Population: 10,354,497 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Portuguese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Portuguese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores,
Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland
during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant denominations, 2% other

Language: Portuguese

Literacy: 83%

Labor force: 4,605,700; 45% services, 35% industry, 20% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: about 55% of the labor force; the Communist-dominated
General Confederation of Portuguese Workers–Intersindical (CGTP-IN) represents
more than half of the unionized labor force; its main competition, the General
Workers Union (UGT), is organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats and
represents less than half of unionized labor

Government
Long-form name: Portuguese Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos,
singular–distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas,
singular–regiao autonoma); Acores*, Aveiro, Beja, Braga,
Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal,
Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent area: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China in 1999)

Independence: 1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982; new discussions on
constitutional revision began October 1987

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the
constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Executive branch: president, Council of State, prime minister, deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia
da Republica)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6
November 1985); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal
Cavaco Silva; Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Jorge Sampaio; Party of
Democratic Renewal (PRD), Herminio Martinho; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP),
Alvaro Cunhal; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Diogo Freitas do Amaral

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 16 February 1986 (next to be held January
1991);
results–Dr. Mario Lopes Soares 51.3%, Prof. Diogo Freitas do Amal
48.7%;

Assembly of the Republic–last held 19 July 1987
(next to be held July 1991);
results–Social Democrats 59.2%, Socialists 24.0%, Communists (in a
front coalition) 12.4%, Democratic Renewal 2.8%, Center Democrats 1.6%;
seats–(250 total) Social Democrats 148, Socialists 60, Communists
(in a front coalition) 31 seats, Democratic Renewal 7,
Center Democrats 4

Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 200,753
(December 1983)

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC–International
Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA BASTOS;
Chancery at 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-8610; there are Portuguese Consulates General in Boston,
New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Los Angeles, Newark (New Jersey),
New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode Island);
US–Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas Armadas,
1600 Lisbon (mailing address is APO New York 09678-0002);
telephone Õ351å (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880; there are US Consulates in
Oporto and Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

Economy
Overview: During the past four years, the economy has made a sustained
recovery from the severe recession of 1983-85. The economy grew by 4.7% in
1987, 4.1% in 1988, and 3.5% in 1989, largely because of strong domestic
consumption and investment spending. Unemployment has declined for the
third consecutive year, but inflation continues to be about three times
the European Community average. The government is pushing economic
restructuring and privatization measures in anticipation of the 1992
European Community timetable to form a single large market in Europe.

GDP: $72.1 billion, per capita $6,900; real growth rate 3.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.8% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $19.0 billion; expenditures $22.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $11.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–cotton
textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber
products, resin, machinery, appliances; partners–EC 72%, other
developed countries 13%, US 6%

Imports: $17.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–petroleum,
cotton, foodgrains, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals;
partners–EC 67%, other developed countries 13%, less developed countries
15%, US 4%

External debt: $17.2 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.5% (1988)

Electricity: 6,729,000 kW capacity; 16,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small
inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops–grain,
potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector–sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat,
dairy products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.8 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $998 million

Currency: Portuguese escudo (plural–escudos);
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1–149.15 (January 1990),
157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987), 149.59 (1986), 170.39 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,613 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP)
operates 2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified,
double track, privately owned

Highways: 73,661 km total; 61,599 km paved (bituminous, gravel, and
crushed stone), including 140 km of limited-access divided highway; 7,962 km
improved earth; 4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)

Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km; refined products, 58 km

Ports: Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas
(Azores), Setubal, Sines

Merchant marine: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 576,654
GRT/1,005,740 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 21 cargo,
2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note–Portugal has created
a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will
have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience;
although only one ship is currently known to fly the Portuguese flag on
the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships
will transfer to this subregister in a few years

Airports: 69 total, 64 usable; 37 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 2,250,000
telephones; stations–44 AM, 66 (22 relays) FM, 25 (23 relays) TV; 7 submarine
cables; communication satellite ground stations operating in the INTELSAT (2
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems (mainland and
Azores)

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,583,782; 2,102,835 fit for military
service; 88,384 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.3 billion (1989 est.)
.pa
Puerto Rico
(commonwealth associated with the US)
Geography
Total area: 9,104 km2; land area: 8,959 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north;
mountains precipitous to sea on west coast

Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore
and offshore crude oil

Land use: 8% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 51% meadows and pastures;
25% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain
belt in north

Note: important location between the Dominican Republic and the Virgin
Islands group along the Mona Passage–a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal;
San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean

People
Population: 3,291,207 (July 1990), growth rate 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Puerto Rican(s); adjective–Puerto Rican

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Hispanic

Religion: mostly Christian, 85% Roman Catholic, 15% Protestant
denominations and other

Language: Spanish (official); English is widely understood

Literacy: 89%

Labor force: 1,062,000; 23% government, 20% trade, 18% manufacturing,
4% agriculture, 35% other (1988)

Organized labor: 115,000 members in 4 unions; the largest is the
General Confederation of Puerto Rican Workers with 35,000 members (1983)

Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Type: commonwealth associated with the US

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952;
effective 25 July 1952

National holiday: Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)

Legal system: based on English common law

Executive branch: US president, US vice president, governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government Governor Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (since 2 January
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael
Hernandez Colon; New Progressive Party (PNP), Baltasar Corrado del Rio;
Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan Mari Bras and Carlos Gallisa;
Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben Berrios Martinez; Puerto
Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992);
results–Rafael Hernandez Colon (PPD) 48.7%, Baltasar Corrada Del Rio
(PNP) 45.8%, Ruben Barrios Martinez (PIP) 5.5%;

Senate–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(27 total) PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1;

House of Representatives–last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(53 total) PPD 36, PNP 15, PIP 2

Other political or pressure groups: all have engaged in terrorist
activities–Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN), Volunteers of the
Puerto Rican Revolution, Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros),
Armed Forces of Popular Resistance

Diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white
five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

Economy
Overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the
Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary
sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free
access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily
in Puerto Rico since the 1970s. Important new industries include
pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed
foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other
livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural
sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income
for the island.

GNP: $18.4 billion, per capita $5,574; real growth rate 4.9% (FY88)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 33% (December 1987-88)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (December 1988)

Budget: revenues $4.9 million; expenditures $4.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)

Exports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., FY88); commodities–sugar, coffee,
petroleum products, chemical, metal products, textiles, electronic equipment;
partners–US 87%

Imports: $11.8 billion (c.i.f., FY88); commodities–chemicals,
clothing, food, fish products, crude oil; partners–US 60%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (FY87)

Electricity: 4,149,000 kW capacity; 14,050 million kWh produced,
4,260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, chemicals,
food processing, petroleum refining

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of labor force; crops–sugarcane,
coffee, pineapples, tobacco, bananas; livestock–cattle, chickens;
imports a large share of food needs

Aid: none

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 100 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane;
no passenger railroads

Highways: 13,762 km paved

Ports: San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo

Airports: 33 total; 23 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 2,000,000 radio receivers; 810,000 TV receivers;
769,140 telephones; stations–69 AM, 42 FM, 24 TV (1984)

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; paramilitary National
Guard; police force of 10,050 men and women (1984)
.pa
Qatar
Geography
Total area: 11,000 km2; land area: 11,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 60 km total; Saudi Arabia 40 km, UAE 20 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: as delimited with neighboring states, or
to limit of shelf, or to median line;

Extended economic zone: to median line;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with UAE is in dispute; territorial dispute with
Bahrain over the Hawar Islands

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 95% other

Environment: haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited freshwater
resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major crude oil sources

People
Population: 490,897 (July 1990), growth rate 5.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 38 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Qatari(s); adjective–Qatari

Ethnic divisions: 40% Arab, 18% Pakistani, 18% Indian, 10% Iranian,
14% other

Religion: 95% Muslim

Language: Arabic (official); English is commonly used as second language

Literacy: 40%

Labor force: 104,000; 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

Government
Long-form name: State of Qatar

Type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in
personal matters

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Executive branch: amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Amir and Prime Minister
Khalifa bin Hamad Al THANI (since 22 February 1972); Heir Apparent Hamad
bin Khalifa AL THANI (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections:
Advisory Council–constitution calls for elections for part
of this consultative body, but no elections have been held;
seats–(30 total)

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamad Abd al-Aziz
AL-KAWARI, Chancery at Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-0111;
US–Ambassador Mark G. HAMBLEY; Embassy at Fariq Bin Omran
(opposite the television station), Doha (mailing address is P. O. Box 2399,
Doha); telephone Õ974å 864701 through 864703

Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the
hoist side

Economy
Overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for 90% of
export earnings and more than 80% of government revenues. Proved oil
reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current
levels for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP of about
$17,000, among the highest in the world.

GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $17,070; real growth rate 9.0% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $3.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum
products 90%, steel, fertilizers; partners–France, FRG, Italy, Japan,
Spain

Imports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.), excluding military equipment;
commodities–foodstuffs, beverages, animal and vegetable oils, chemicals,
machinery and equipment; partners–EC, Japan, Arab countries, US,
Australia

External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1987)

Electricity: 1,514,000 kW capacity; 4,000 million kWh produced,
8,540 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel, cement

Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP;
commercial fishing increasing in importance; most food imported

Aid: donor–pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed countries (1979-
88)

Currency: Qatari riyal (plural–riyals); 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1–3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 1,500 km total; 1,000 km bituminous, 500 km gravel or
natural surface (est.)

Pipelines: crude oil, 235 km; natural gas, 400 km

Ports: Doha, Musayid, Halul Island

Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 273,318 GRT/420,227
DWT; includes 7 cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
Bahrain and UAE; stations–2 AM, 1 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations–1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 255,474; 120,614 fit for military service;
3,982 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Reunion
(overseas department of France)
Geography
Total area: 2,510 km2; land area: 2,500 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from
May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: 20% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 39% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: periodic devastating cyclones

Note: located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

People
Population: 595,583 (July 1990), growth rate 1.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Reunionese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Reunionese

Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of intermixed French, African,
Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and Indian ancestry

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official); Creole widely used

Literacy: NA%, but over 80% among younger generation

Labor force: NA; 30% agriculture, 21% industry, 49% services (1981);
63% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: General Confederation of Workers of Reunion (CGTR)

Government
Long-form name: Department of Reunion

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, Commissioner of the Republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council, unicameral Regional
Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d’appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government–Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN
(since September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR),
Francois Mas; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert Gerard; Communist
Party of Reunion (PCR); France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre Thien Ah Koon;
Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude Fruteau; Social Democrats (CDS), other
small parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Regional Council–last held 16 March 1986
(next to be held March 1991);
results–RPR/UDF 36.8%, PCR 28.2%, FRA and other right wing 17.3%,
PS 14.1%, other 3.6%;
seats–(45 total) RPR/UDF 18, PCR 13, FRA and other right wing 8, PS 6;

French Senate–last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent 1;

French National Assembly–last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA 1

Communists: Communist party small but has support among sugarcane cutters,
the minuscule Popular Movement for the Liberation of Reunion (MPLR), and in the
district of Le Port

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France, Reunionese
interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture.
Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years
it accounts for 85% of exports. The government is pushing the development
of a tourist industry to relieve a high unemployment rate that was over 30%
in 1986. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued
financial assistance from France.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $4,290 (1985);
real growth rate 9% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 32.0%; high seasonal unemployment (1986)

Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Exports: $136 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities–sugar 75%, rum
and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, vanilla and tea 1%;
partners–France, Mauritius, Bahrain, S. Africa, Italy

Imports: $1.1 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities–manufactured
goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation equipment, raw
materials, and petroleum products; partners–France, Mauritius, Bahrain,
South Africa, Italy

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 546 million kWh produced,
965 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing
handicraft items

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy;
cash crops–sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops–tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $13.5 billion

Currency: French franc (plural–francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1–5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized earth

Ports: Pointe des Galets

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system for needs; modern open-wire line and
radio relay network; principal center Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to
Comoros, France, Madagascar; new radio relay route to Mauritius;
85,900 telephones; stations–3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 relays) TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Military manpower: males 15-49, 158,812; 82,400 fit for military
service; 6,075 reach military age (18) annually

Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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Romania
Geography
Total area: 237,500 km2; land area: 230,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,904 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
USSR 1,307 km, Yugoslavia 546 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Transylvania question with Hungary; Bessarabia question
with USSR

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Natural resources: crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber,
natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use: 43% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 19% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides, air pollution in south

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans and western USSR

People
Population: 23,273,285 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Romanian(s); adjective–Romanian

Ethnic divisions: 89.1% Romanian; 7.8% Hungarian; 1.5% German; 1.6%
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy

Religion: 80% Romanian Orthodox; 6% Roman Catholic; 4% Calvinist,
Lutheran, Jewish, Baptist

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 10,690,000; 34% industry, 28% agriculture, 38% other (1987)

Organized labor: until December 1989, a single trade union system
organized by the General Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR)
under control of the Communist Party; since Ceausescu’s overthrow,
newly-created trade and professional trade unions are joining two rival
umbrella organizations–Organization of Free Trade Unions and Fratia
(Brotherhood)

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: former Communist state; current multiparty provisional
government has scheduled a general democratic election for 20 May 1990

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular–judet) and
1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*,
Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita,
Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj,
Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey); republic proclaimed 30 December 1947

Constitution: 21 August 1965; new constitution being drafted

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist
legal theory that increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being
revised; Communist regime had not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction;
Provisional Council of National Unity will probably accept ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 August (1944); new national
day to commemorate popular anti-Ceausescu uprising under discussion

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister, and
Council of Ministers (cabinet) appointed by provisional government

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Deputies
(Adunarea Deputatilor)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State–President of Provisional Council of National Unity
Ion ILIESCU (since 23 December 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister of Council of Ministers
Petre ROMAN (since 23 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party,
Sergiu Cunescu; National Liberal Party, Radu Cimpeanu; National Christian
Peasants Party, Corneliu Coposu; Free Democratic Social Justice Party,
Gheorghe Susana; several others being formed; Communist Party has ceased
to exist; formation of left-wing parties is uncertain

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Senate–elections for the new upper house to be held 20 May 1990;

House of Deputies–elections for the new lower house to be held
20 May 1990

Communists: 3,400,000 (November 1984); Communist Party has ceased
to exist

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw
Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Virgil CONSTANTINESCU;
Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 232-4747; US–Ambassador Alan GREEN, Jr., recalled to
Washington May 1990; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
(mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone Õ40å (0) 10-40-40

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow
band, has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

Economy
Overview: Industry, which accounts for one-third of the labor force
and generates over half the GNP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. In recent years the agricultural sector
has had to contend with drought, mismanagement, and shortages of inputs.
Favorable weather in 1989 helped produce a good harvest, although far
below government claims. The new government is slowly loosening the tight
central controls of Ceausescu’s command economy. It has instituted
moderate land reforms, with close to one-third of cropland now in
private hands, and it has allowed changes in prices for private
agricultural output. Also, the new regime is permitting the
establishment of private enterprises of 20 or fewer employees in
services, handicrafts, and small-scale industry. Furthermore, the
government has halted the old policy of diverting food from domestic
consumption to hard currency export markets. So far, the government
does not seem willing to adopt a thorough-going market system.

GNP: $79.8 billion, per capita $3,445; real growth rate – 1.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $21.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1987)

Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–machinery and
equipment 34.7%, fuels, minerals and metals 24.7%, manufactured consumer goods
16.9%, agricultural materials and forestry products 11.9%, other 11.6% (1986);
partners–USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)

Imports: $8.75 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–fuels, minerals,
and metals 51.0%, machinery and equipment 26.7%, agricultural and forestry
products 11.0%, manufactured consumer goods 4.2% (1986);
partners–Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)

External debt: none (mid-1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Electricity: 22,640,000 kW capacity; 80,000 million kWh produced,
3,440 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; major
wheat and corn producer; other products–sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Aid: donor–$4.3 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less
developed countries (1956-88)

Currency: leu (plural–lei); 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1–20.96 (February 1990), 14.922 (1989),
14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987), 16.153 (1986), 17.141 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 11,221 km total; 10,755 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 421 km
narrow gauge, 45 km broad gauge; 3,328 km electrified, 3,060 km double track;
government owned (1986)

Highways: 72,799 km total; 15,762 km concrete, asphalt, stone block;
20,208 km asphalt treated; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and other paved
surfaces; 9,100 km unpaved roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 6,400 km natural
gas

Ports: Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu,
Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova

Merchant marine: 282 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,313,320
GRT/5,134,335 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 184 cargo, 1 container,
1 rail-car carrier, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 livestock carrier,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 69 bulk

Civil air: 70 major transport aircraft

Airports: 165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–39 AM, 30 FM, 38 TV; 3,910,000 TV sets;
3,225,000 radio receivers; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Romanian Army, Security Troops, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Romanian Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,736,783; 4,860,427 fit for military
service; 193,537 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 11.8 billion lei, 2.8% of total budget (1989);
note–conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
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Rwanda
Geography
Total area: 26,340 km2; land area: 24,950 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 893 km total; Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km,
Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November
to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), natural gas, hydropower

Land use: 29% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 18% meadows and
pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion;
periodic droughts

Note: landlocked

People
Population: 7,609,119 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 53 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 113 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 8.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun and adjective–Rwandan(s)

Ethnic divisions: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religion: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%,
indigenous beliefs and other 25%

Language: Kinyarwanda, French (official); Kiswahili used in commercial
centers

Literacy: 46.6%

Labor force: 3,600,000; 93% agriculture, 5% government and services,
2% industry and commerce; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Rwanda

Type: republic; presidential system in which military leaders hold key
offices

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures,
singular–prefecture in French; plural–NA, singular–prefegitura in
Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo,
Kibuye, Rigali, Ruhengeri

Constitution: 17 December 1978

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Development Council (Conseil pour
le Developpement National)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation
and the Council of State in joint session)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Maj. Gen.
Juvenal HABYARIMANA (since 5 July 1973)

Political parties and leaders: only party–National Revolutionary
Movement for Development (MRND), Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana
(officially a development movement, not a party)

Suffrage: universal adult, exact age NA

Elections:
President–last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); results–President Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana reelected;

National Development Council–last held 19 December 1988 (next
to be held December 1993);
results–MRND is the only party;
seats–(70 total); MRND 70

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, EAMA, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA; Chancery at
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 232-2882;
US–Ambassador Leonard H. O. SPEARMAN, Sr.; Embassy at Boulevard de la
Revolution, Kigali (mailing address is B. P. 28, Kigali);
telephone Õ205å 75601 through 75603 or 72126 through 72128

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green
with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain
yellow band

Economy
Overview: About 40% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee
and tea make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited,
however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The
industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing less than 20% to GDP.
Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products.
The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee exports and foreign aid,
with no relief in sight. Weak international prices since 1986 have
caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to decline.

GDP: $2.3 billion, per capita $325; real growth rate – 2.5% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $413 million; expenditures $522 million, including
capital expenditures of $230 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $118 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–coffee 85%, tea,
tin, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum; partners–FRG, Belgium, Italy,
Uganda, UK, France, US

Imports: $278 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–textiles,
foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products,
cement and construction material; partners–US, Belgium, FRG, Kenya, Japan

External debt: $645 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1988)

Electricity: 26,000 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced,
15 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten
ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production,
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Agriculture: cash crops–coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made
from chrysanthemums); main food crops–bananas, beans, sorghum,
potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports
foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up with a 3.8% annual growth
in population

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $118 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$58 million

Currency: Rwandan franc (plural–francs); 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1–78.99 (December 1989),
79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988), 79.67 (1987), 87.64 (1986), 101.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 4,885 km total; 460 km paved, 1,725 km gravel and/or improved
earth, 2,700 km unimproved

Inland waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native
craft

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 8 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with low-capacity radio relay system
centered on Kigali; 6,600 telephones; stations–2 AM, 5 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, paramilitary, Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,586,989; 810,560 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (1987)
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St. Helena
(dependent territory of the UK)
Geography
Total area: 410 km2; land area: 410 km2; includes Ascension, Gough Island,
Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds

Terrain: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

Natural resources: fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles
and sooty terns; no minerals

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: very few perennial streams

Note: Napoleon Bonaparte’s place of exile and burial; the remains
were taken to Paris in 1840

People
Population: 6,657 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGl migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–St. Helenian(s); adjective–St. Helenian

Ethnic divisions: NA

Religion: Anglican majority; also Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist,
and Roman Catholic

Language: English

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: St. Helena General Workers’ Union, 472 members;
17% crafts, 10% professional and technical, 10% service, 9% management and
clerical, 9% farming and fishing, 6% transport, 5% sales, 1% security, and
33% other

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 2 dependencies and 1 administrative area*;
Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 January 1967

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government–Governor and Commander in Chief Robert
F. STIMSON (since 1987)

Political parties and leaders: St. Helena Labor Party, G. A. O.
Thornton; St. Helena Progressive Party, leader unknown; note–both
political parties inactive since 1976

Suffrage: NA

Elections:
Legislative Council–last held October 1984 (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(15 total, 12 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the St. Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield
features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

Economy
Overview: The economy depends primarily on financial assistance
from the UK. The local population earns some income from fishing,
the rearing of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are
few jobs, a large proportion of the work force have left to seek employment
overseas.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): – 1.1% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.2 million; expenditures $2.9 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1984)

Exports: $23.9 thousand (f.o.b., 1984); commodities–fish (frozen
skipjack, tuna, salt-dried skipjack), handicrafts; partners–South Africa,
UK

Imports: $2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984); commodities–food,
beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor
vehicles and parts, machinery and parts; partners–UK, South Africa

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,800 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced,
1,390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fish

Agriculture: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being
developed; crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $168 million

Currency: St. Helenian pound (plural–pounds);
1 St. Helenian pound (LS) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: St. Helenian pounds (LS) per US$1–0.6055
(January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986),
0.7714 (1985); note–the St. Helenian pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 87 km bitumen-sealed roads, 20 km earth roads on St. Helena;
80 km bitumen-sealed on Ascension; 2.7 km bitumen-sealed on Tristan da Cunha

Ports: Jamestown (St. Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo ship totaling 3,150 GRT/2,264 DWT

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m on Ascension

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers; stations–1 AM,
no FM, no TV; 550 telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension,
then into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial
cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
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St. Kitts and Nevis
Geography
Total area: 360 km2; land area: 360 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 22% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 3% meadows and
pastures; 17% forest and woodland; 41% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes (July to October)

Note: located 320 km southeast of Puerto Rico

People
Population: 40,157 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Nationality: noun–Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s); adjective–Kittsian, Nevisian

Religion: Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic

Language: English

Literacy: 80%

Labor force: 20,000 (1981)

Organized labor: 6,700

Government
Long-form name: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland,
Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary
Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre,
Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (sometimes referred to as
the National Assembly)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983,
previously Governor General of the Associated State since November 1981);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS
(since 19 September 1983, previously Premier of the Associated State since
February 1980); Deputy Prime Minister Michael Oliver POWELL (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: People’s Action Movement (PAM), Kennedy
Simmonds; St. Kitts and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Lee Moore; Nevis
Reformation Party (NRP), Simeon Daniel; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM),
Vance Amory

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
House of Assembly–last held 21 March 1989
(next to be held by 21 March 1994);
seats–(14 total, 11 elected) PAM 6, SKNLP 2, NRP 2, CCM 1

Communists: none known

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, IBRD, IMF, ISO, OAS, OECS, UN

Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission),
Charge d’Affaires ad interim Erstein M. EDWARDS; Chancery at Suite 540,
2501 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 833-3550;
US–none

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band
bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the
upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

Economy
Overview: The economy has historically depended on the growing and
processing of sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In
recent years, tourism and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed
larger roles.

GDP: $119 million, per capita $3,240; real growth rate 6%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 20-25% (1987)

Budget: revenues $38.5 million; expenditures $45.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $15.8 million (1988)

Exports: $30.3 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–sugar,
manufactures, postage stamps; partners–US 44%, UK 30%, Trinidad and
Tobago 12% (1987)

Imports: $94.7 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–foodstuffs,
intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels; partners–US 35%, UK 18%,
Trinidad and Tobago 10%, Canada 6%, Japan 4% (1987)

External debt: $27.6 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1986)

Electricity: 15,800 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
1,120 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra,
clothing, footwear, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; cash crop–sugarcane; subsistence
crops–rice, yams, bananas; fishing potential not fully exploited; most food
imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $13.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $46 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural–dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1–2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 58 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge on St. Kitts for sugarcane

Highways: 300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 km otherwise improved, 50 km
unimproved earth

Ports: Basseterre (St. Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and
international link via Antigua and Barbuda and St. Martin; 2,400 telephones;
stations–2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Kitts and Nevis Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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St. Lucia
Geography
Total area: 620 km2; land area: 610 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds;
dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral
springs, geothermal potential

Land use: 8% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 13% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity;
deforestation; soil erosion

Note: located 700 km southeast of Puerto Rico

People
Population: 153,196 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–St. Lucian(s); adjective–St. Lucian

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% African descent, 5.5% mixed, 3.2% East Indian,
0.8% Caucasian

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 7% Protestant, 3% Anglican

Language: English (official), French patois

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 43,800; 43.4% agriculture, 38.9% services, 17.7% industry
and commerce (1983 est.)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul,
Dauphin, Dennery, Gros-Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux-Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988);

Head of Government–Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since
3 May 1982)

Political parties and leaders: United Workers’ Party (UWP), John Compton;
St. Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Julian Hunte; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George
Odlum

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly–last held 6 April 1987 (next to be held
April 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(17 total) UWP 10, SLP 7

Communists: negligible

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, NAM, OAS, OECS, PAHO, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS;
Chancery at Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington DC 30037;
telephone (202) 463-7378 or 7379; there is a St. Lucian Consulate General
in New York;
US–none

Flag: blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the
upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

Economy
Overview: Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average
annual growth rate of almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist
industry sectors. There is also an expanding industrial base supported by
foreign investment in manufacturing and other activities, such as in data
processing. The economy, however, remains vulnerable because the important
agricultural sector is dominated by banana production. St. Lucia is subject
to periodic droughts and/or tropical storms, and its protected market agreement
with the UK for bananas may end in 1992.

GDP: $172 million, per capita $1,258; real growth rate 6.8% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 18.6% (1986)

Budget: revenues $71.7 million; expenditures $79.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $19.6 million (1987)

Exports: $76.8 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–bananas 67%,
cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil, clothing; partners–UK 55%,
CARICOM 21%, US 18%, other 6%

Imports: $178.1 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities–manufactured
goods 22%, machinery and transportation equipment 21%, food and live animals
20%, mineral fuels, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, petroleum
products; partners–US 33%, UK 16%, CARICOM 14.8%, Japan 6.5%, other 29.7%

External debt: $39.5 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.4% (1987)

Electricity: 20,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages,
corrugated boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 43% of labor force;
crops–bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa;
imports food for the tourist industry

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $4 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $93 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural–dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1–2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal Year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 km otherwise improved

Ports: Castries

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439

Telecommunications: fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones;
direct radio relay link with Martinique and St. Vincent and the Grenadines;
interisland troposcatter link to Barbados; stations–4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (cable)

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Lucia Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
St. Pierre and Miquelon
(territorial collectivity of France)
Geography
Total area: 242 km2; land area: 242 km2; includes eight small islands
in the St. Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: 13% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: vegetation scanty

Note: located 25 km south of Newfoundland, Canada, in the
North Atlantic Ocean

People
Population: 6,330 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective–French

Ethnic divisions: originally Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: French

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between 6 and 16 years of age

Labor force: 2,510 (1982)

Organized labor: Workers’ Force trade union

Government
Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: St. Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: National Day, 14 July

Executive branch: commissioner of the Republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur
d’Appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government–Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre MARQUIE
(since February 1989); President of the General Council Marc PLANTEGENEST
(since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS);
Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard Grignon

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council–last held September-October 1988 (next to be
held September 1994);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(19 total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and
right-wing parties 6;

French President–last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results–(second ballot) Jacques Chirac 56%, Francois Mitterrand 44%;

French Senate–last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held September 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) PS 1;

French National Assembly–last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) UDF/CDS 1

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
local interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood
by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of
Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the number
of ships stopping at St. Pierre has steadily dropped over the years. In
March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish quotas for
St. Pierre’s trawlers fishing in Canadian and Canadian-claimed waters for
three years. The agreement settles a longstanding dispute that had
virtually brought fish exports to a halt. The islands are heavily
subsidized by France. Imports come primarily from Canada.

GDP: $NA, per capita $2,495 (1984); real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 13.3% (1987)

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $13.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $23.3 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities–fish and fish
products, fox and mink pelts; partners–US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%,
Canada, Portugal

Imports: $50.3 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities–meat, clothing,
fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials;
partners–Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced,
3,970 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Agriculture: vegetables, cattle, sheep and pigs for local
consumption; fish catch, 14,750 metric tons (1986)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $477 million

Currency: French franc (plural–francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1–5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 120 km total; 60 kM paved (1985)

Ports: St. Pierre

Civil air: Air Saint-Pierre

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways,
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,601 telephones; stations–1 AM, 3 FM, no TV;
radiotelecommunication with most countries in the world; 1 satellite earth
station in French domestic system

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Geography
Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation;
rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of
St. Vincent

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 38% arable land; 12% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 41% forest and woodland; 3% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant
threat

Note: some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

People
Population: 112,646 (July 1990), growth rate 1.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–St. Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s); adjectives–St.
Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent; remainder mixed, with
some white, East Indian, Carib Indian

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English, some French patois

Literacy: 82%

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

Organized labor: 10% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines,
Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (includes 15 elected
representatives and six appointed senators)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General David JACK (since 29 Septermber 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son)
Mitchell; St. Vincent Labor Party (SVLP), Vincent Beach; United People’s
Movement (UPM), Adrian Saunders; Movement for National Unity (MNU),
Ralph Gonsalves; National Reform Party (NRP), Joel Miguel

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly–last held 16 May 1989
(next to be held July 1994);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(15 total) NDP 15

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IMF, IMO, OAS, OECS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and
green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern

Economy
Overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most
important sector of the economy, providing employment for over 60% of the labor
force and contributing about 20% to GDP. The services sector is next in
importance, based mostly on a growing tourist industry. The economy
continues to have a high unemployment rate of 30% because of an
overdependence on the weather-plagued banana crop as a major export earner.
Government progress toward diversifying into new industries has been relatively
unsuccessful.

GDP: $136 million, per capita $1,305; real growth rate 8.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $42.7 million; expenditures $67.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $25.8 (FY88)

Exports: $63.8 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities–bananas,
eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, copra;
partners–CARICOM 60%, UK 27%, US 10%

Imports: $87.3 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities–foodstuffs,
machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels;
partners–US 37%, CARICOM 18%, UK 13%

External debt: $35 million (July 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate – 1.2% (1986)

Electricity: 16,600 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced,
610 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (sugar, flour), cement, furniture, rum,
starch, sheet metal, beverage

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk
of exports; products–bananas, arrowroot (world’s largest producer), coconuts,
sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish
catch used locally

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $71 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural–dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1–2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Highways: about 1,000 km total; 300 km paved; 400 km improved; 300 km
unimproved

Ports: Kingstown

Merchant marine: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,305,945
GRT/2,029,935 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 103 cargo,
10 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo,
9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 28 bulk, 4 combination bulk; note–a flag of convenience
registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: islandwide fully automatic telephone system;
6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF interisland links to Barbados and the Grenadines;
new SHF links to Grenada and St. Lucia; stations–2 AM, no FM, 1 TV (cable)

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
San Marino
Geography
Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 39 km with Italy

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Natural resources: building stones

Land use: 17% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: dominated by the Appenines

Note: landlocked; world’s smallest republic; enclave of Italy

People
Population: 23,123 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 8 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Sanmarinese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Sanmarinese

Ethnic divisions: Sanmarinese, Italian

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: about 4,300

Organized labor: Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated
with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated General Federation of
Labor, 1,400 members

Government
Long-form name: Republic of San Marino

Type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular–castello);
Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino,
Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 (by tradition)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic,
3 September

Executive branch: two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet); real
executive power is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the
secretary of state for internal affairs

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council (Consiglio
Grande e Generale)

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

Leaders:
Co-Chiefs of State and Co-Heads of Government–Captain Regent Salvatori
REVES (since April 1989) and Captain Regent Luciano CARDELLI (since April 1989);
Captains Regent are elected for six-month terms

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCS),
Gabriele Gatti; Communist Party (PCS), Gilberto Ghiotti; Socialist Unity Party
(PSU), Emilio Della Balda and Patrizia Busignani; San Marino Socialist Party
(PSS), Antonio Volpinari; San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS),
Augusto Casali; San Marino Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo Buscarini

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Grand and General Council–last held 29 May 1988
(next to be held by May 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7

Communists: about 300 members; the PCS, in conjunction with the PSS, PSU,
and PSDS, has led the government since 1978

Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties influenced
by policies of their counterparts in Italy

Member of: ICJ, ITU, IRC, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WTO; observer
status in NAM

Diplomatic representation: San Marino maintains honorary
Consulates General in Washington and New York, and an honorary Consulate
in Detroit;
US–no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence
(Italy) is accredited to San Marino; Consulate General at
38 Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, Florence, Italy (mailing address is APO
NY 09019); telephone Õ39å (55) 298-276

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the
national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield
(featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and
above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

Economy
Overview: The economy relies heavily on the tourist industry as a source
of revenue. More than 2 million tourists visit each year, contributing about
60% to GDP. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is another
important income producer. The manufacturing sector employs nearly 40% of the
labor force and agriculture less than 4%. The per capita level of output
and standard of living are comparable to northern Italy.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1985)

Budget: revenues $99.2 million; expenditures $NA, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity
trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts,
wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer
manufactures

Imports: see Exports

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: supplied by Italy

Industries: wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourist

Agriculture: employs less than 4% of labor force; products–wheat, grapes,
corn, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses;
depends on Italy for food imports

Aid: NA

Currency: Italian lira (plural–lire);
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1–1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 104 km

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 11,700 telephones;
stations–no AM, 20 FM, no TV; radio relay and cable links into Italian
networks; no communication satellite facilities

Defense Forces
Branches: public security or police force of less than 50 people

Military manpower: all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia that can
serve as an army

Defense expenditures: NA
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Sao Tome and Principe
Geography
Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
75% forest and woodland; 3% other

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion

Note: located south of Nigeria and west of Gabon near the Equator
in the North Atlantic Ocean

People
Population: 124,765 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Sao Tomean(s); adjective–Sao Tomean

Ethnic divisions: mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola,
Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands),
and Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Portuguese (official)

Literacy: 50% (est.)

Labor force: 21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers;
56% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

Type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular–concelho);
Principe, Sao Tome

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 5 November 1975, approved 15 December 1982

Legal system: based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People’s Assembly, sometimes
referred to as the National Popular Assembly (Assembleia Popular Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Dr. Manuel Pinto da COSTA (since 12 July 1975);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Celestino Rocha da COSTA (since
8 January 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Movement for the
Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Dr. Manuel Pinto da Costa

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 30 September 1985 (next to be held September
1990);
results–President Dr. Manuel Pinto da Costa was reelected without
opposition by the National People’s Assembly;

National People’s Assembly–last held 30 September 1985 (next to be
held September 1990);
results–MLSTP is the only party;
seats–(40 total) MLSTP 40 (indirectly elected)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joaquim Rafael BRANCO; Chancery
(temporary) at 801 Second Avenue, Suite 1504, New York, NY 10017;
telephone (212) 697-4211;
US–the US Ambassador in Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe
on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

Flag: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and
green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the
yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy
Overview: The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the
gained independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa
production has gradually deteriorated because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 output had fallen to less than 50% of
its former levels. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has
also declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of
exports by a ratio of 4 to 1. The emphasis on cocoa production at
the expense of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import
90% of food needs. It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured
goods. Over the years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external
debt, which amounts to roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable
potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the
government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The
government also implemented a Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to
restructure the economy and reschedule external debt service payments in
cooperation with the International Development Association and Western
lenders.

GDP: $37.9 million, per capita $340; real growth rate 1.8% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $19.2 million; expenditures $25.1 million,
including capital expenditures of $19.9 million (1987)

Exports: $9.1 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–cocoa 90%,
copra, coffee, palm oil; partners–FRG, GDR, Netherlands, China

Imports: $17.3 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–machinery
and electrical equipment 59%, food products 32%, fuels 9%;
partners–Portugal, GDR, Angola, China

External debt: $95 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.1% (1986)

Electricity: 6,000 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries,
shrimp processing

Agriculture: dominant sector of economy, primary source of exports; cash
crops–cocoa (90%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee; food products–bananas,
papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not self-sufficient in food grain and meat

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
41.9 million

Currency: dobra (plural–dobras); 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1–122.48 (December 1988),
72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986), 41.195 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 300 km (two-thirds are paved); roads on Principe are mostly
unpaved and in need of repair

Ports: Sao Tome, Santo Antonio

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: minimal system; 2,200 telephones; stations–1 AM,
2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 27,805; 14,662 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP (1980)
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Saudi Arabia
Geography
Total area: 2,149,690 km2; land area: 2,149,690 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

Land boundaries: 4,410 km total; Iraq 488 km, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral
Zone 198 km, Jordan 742 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 40 km, UAE 586 km,
PDRY 830 km, YAR 628 km

Coastline: 2,510 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: no defined boundaries with PDRY, UAE, and YAR;
shares Neutral Zone with Iraq–in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia
signed an agreement to divide the zone between them, but the agreement
must be ratified, however, before it becomes effective; Kuwaiti
ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 39% meadows and pastures;
1% forest and woodland; 59% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing
extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities; desertification

Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great
leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

People
Population: 17,115,728 (July 1990), growth rate 4.4% (1990); note–the
population figure is based on growth since the last official Saudi census of
1974 reported a total of 7 million persons and includes foreign workers, while
estimates from other sources may be 15-30% lower

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 13 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Saudi(s); adjective–Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Asian

Religion: 100% Muslim

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 52%

Labor force: 4,200,000; about 60% are foreign workers; 34% government,
28% industry and oil, 22% services, and 16% agriculture

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 14 emirates (imarat, singular–imarah);
Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah,
Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, Asir,
Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

Constitution: none; governed according to Sharia (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Executive branch: monarch and prime minister, crown prince and deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–King and Prime Minister
FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982);
Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al
Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: negligible

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan; Chancery at
601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-3800;
there are Saudi Arabian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, and
New York;
US–Ambassador Charles W. FREEMAN; Embassy at Collector Road M,
Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh (mailing address is P. O. Box 9041, Riyadh 11143,
or APO New York 09038); telephone Õ966å (1) 488-3800; there are US Consulates
General in Dhahran and Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated
as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a
white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the
traditional color of Islam

Economy
Overview: By far the most important economic activity is the production of
petroleum and petroleum products. The petroleum sector accounts for about 85% of
budget revenues, 80% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has
the largest reserves of petroleum in the world, is the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. Oil wealth has provided a per
capita GDP that is comparable to most industrialized countries. Saudi Arabia is
one of the few countries where consumer prices have been dropping or showing
little change in recent years.

GDP: $73 billion, per capita $4,720; real growth rate 3.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $31.5 billion; expenditures $38.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Exports: $24.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–petroleum
and petroleum products 89%; partners–Japan 26%, US 26%, France 6%,
Bahrain 6%

Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities–manufactured goods, transportation equipment, construction
materials, processed food products; partners–US 20%, Japan 18%, UK 16%,
Italy 11%

External debt: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.1% (1980-86)

Electricity: 25,066,000 kW capacity; 50,000 million kWh produced,
3,100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, small steel-rolling mill, construction, fertilizer,
plastic

Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; fastest
growing economic sector; subsidized by government; products–wheat, barley,
tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching
self-sufficiency in food

Aid: donor–pledged $64.7 billion in bilateral aid (1979-89)

Currency: Saudi riyal (plural–riyals); 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalas

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1–3.7450 (fixed rate since late
1986), 3.7033 (1986), 3.6221 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 886 km 1.435-meter standard gauge

Highways: 74,000 km total; 35,000 km bituminous, 39,000 km gravel and
improved earth

Pipelines: 6,400 km crude oil; 150 km refined products; 2,200 km natural
gas, includes 1,600 km of natural gas liquids

Ports: Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu al
Bahr, Yanbu al Sinaiyah

Merchant marine: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,988,322
GRT/3,474,788 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 container,
6 refrigerated cargo, 4 livestock carrier, 32 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 3 bulk

Civil air: 182 major transport aircraft available

Airports: 204 total, 179 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 13
with runways over 3,659 m; 33 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 98 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system with extensive microwave and coaxial
cable systems; 1,624,000 telephones; stations–21 AM, 16 FM, 97 TV;
radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, YAR, and Sudan;
coaxial cable to Kuwait; submarine cable to Djibouti and Egypt; satellite
earth stations–3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Saudi Arabian Land Forces, Royal Saudi Naval Forces, Royal Saudi
Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Defense Force, Saudi Arabian National Guard,
Coast Guard and Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security Force,
Special Emergency Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,437,039; 3,606,344 fit for military
service; 159,186 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 16.9% of GDP, or $12.3 billion (1990 est.)
.pa
Senegal
Geography
Total area: 196,190 km2; land area: 192,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km,
Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of the boundary with The Gambia is
indefinite; the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor
of Senegal–that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau;
boundary with Mauritania

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry
harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use: 27% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures;
31% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave

People
Population: 7,713,851 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Senegalese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Senegalese

Ethnic divisions: 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 17% Serer, 9% Toucouleur, 9%
Diola, 9% Mandingo, 1% European and Lebanese, 2% other

Religion: 92% Muslim, 6% indigenous beliefs, 2% Christian (mostly Roman
Catholic)

Language: French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy: 28.1%

Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers; 175,000 wage
earners–40% private sector, 60% government and parapublic; 52% of population of
working age (1985)

Organized labor: majority of wage-labor force represented by unions;
however, dues-paying membership very limited; major confederation is
National Confederation of Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of governing
party

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Senegal

Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular–region);
Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda,
Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); The Gambia and Senegal signed
an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for
the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the
agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 3 March 1963, last revised in 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government’s accounting
office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government–President Abdou
DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS), Abdou Diouf;
Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS), Abdoulaye Wade; 13 other small uninfluential
parties

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held February
1993);
results–Abdou Diouf (PS) 73%, Abdoulaye Wade (PDS) 26%, others 1%;

National Assembly–last held 28 February 1988 (next to be
held February 1993);
results–PS 71%, PDS 25%, others 4%;
seats–(120 total) PS 103, PDS 17

Communists: small number of Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: students, teachers, labor, Muslim
Brotherhoods

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate),
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, OMVS
(Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-0540 or 0541;
US–Ambassador George E. MOOSE; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the
corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar);
telephone Õ221å 21-42-96

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy
Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and
provides employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the total
cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. The principal
economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200 million or about 25%
of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining is dominated by the
extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered because of reduced
worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10 years tourism
has become increasingly more important to the economy.

GDP: $5.0 billion, per capita $680; real growth rate 5.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): – 1.8% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million; including
capital expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $761 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%,
petroleum products 11%, phosphates 10%;
partners–US, France, other EC, Ivory Coast, India

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer
goods 17%, petroleum 12%, capital goods 14%;
partners–US, France, other EC, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan

External debt: $3.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1986)

Electricity: 210,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, agricultural processing, phosphate mining,
petroleum refining, building materials

Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for 20% of GDP and 75% of
labor force; major products–peanuts (cash crop), millet, corn, sorghum,
rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated two-thirds
self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 299,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $492 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$295 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km
double track Dakar to Thies

Highways: 14,000 km total; 3,770 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or
improved earth

Inland waterways: 900 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 115 km
on the Saloum

Ports: Dakar, Kaolack

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 9,263 GRT/15,167
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 25 total, 20 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average urban system, using radio relay and
cable; 40,200 telephones; stations–8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,682,786; 878,812 fit for military
service; 88,940 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $100 million (1989 est.)
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Seychelles
Geography
Total area: 455 km2; land area: 455 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon
(late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use: 4% arable land; 18% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
18% forest and woodland; 60% other

Environment: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare;
short droughts possible; no fresh water, catchements collect rain; 40 granitic
and about 50 coralline islands

Note: located north-northeast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

People
Population: 68,336 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Seychellois (sing. and pl.); adjective–Seychelles

Ethnic divisions: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 8% Anglican, 2% other

Language: English and French (official); Creole

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 27,700; 31% industry and commerce, 21% services,
20% government, 12% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 16% other (1985);
57% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: three major trade unions

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Seychelles

Type: republic; member of the Commonwealth

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none; note–there may be 21
administrative districts named Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse
Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie St. Anne, Beau Vallon,
Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse (on Mahe Island),
Grand Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance,
Pointe Larue, Port-Glaud, Riviere Anglaise, St. Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

Constitution: 5 June 1979

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 5 June (1977)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President France Albert
RENE (since 5 June 1977)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Seychelles People’s
Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert Rene

Suffrage: universal at age 17

Elections:
President–last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held June 1994);
results–President France Albert Rene reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held 5 December 1987 (next to be
held December 1992);
results–SPPF is the only party;
seats–(25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23

Communists: negligible, although some Cabinet ministers
espouse pro-Soviet line

Other political or pressure groups: trade unions, Roman Catholic Church

Member of: ACP, AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Second Secretary, Charge d’Affaires
ad interim Marc R. MARENGO; Chancery (temporary) at 820 Second Avenue,
Suite 201, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 687-9766;
US–Ambassador James MORAN; Embassy at 4th Floor, Victoria House, Victoria
(mailing address is Box 148, Victoria, or APO New York 09030);
telephone 23921 or 23922

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green;
the white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

Economy
Overview: In this small, open tropical island economy, the tourist
industry employs about 30% of the labor force and provides the main
source of hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has
encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other
services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high
dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing,
and small-scale manufacturing.

GDP: $255 million, per capita $3,720; real growth rate 6.2%;
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1986)

Budget: revenues $106 million; expenditures $130 million, including
capital expenditures of $21 million (1987)

Exports: $17 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities–fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products
(reexports);
partners–France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)

Imports: $116 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities–manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products;
partners–UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, PDRY 13%,
Singapore 8%, Japan 6% (1987)

External debt: $178 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1987)

Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 67 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing,
coir rope factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming;
cash crops–coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products–sweet potatoes,
cassava, bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-88), $23 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-87), $297 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$56 million

Currency: Seychelles rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SR) per US$1–5.4884 (January 1990),
5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988), 5.6000 (1987), 6.1768 (1986), 7.1343 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 260 km total; 160 km bituminous, 100 km crushed stone or earth

Ports: Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 14 total, 14 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: direct radio communications with adjacent islands and
African coastal countries; 13,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM, 1 TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 17,073; 8,776 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 6% of GDP, or $12 million (1990 est.)
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Sierra Leone
Geography
Total area: 71,740 km2; land area: 71,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country,
upland plateau, mountains in east

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use: 25% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 31% meadows and pastures;
29% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea;
deforestation; soil degradation

People
Population: 4,165,953 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 154 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Sierra Leonean(s); adjective–Sierra Leonean

Ethnic divisions: 99% native African (30% Temne, 30% Mende); 1% Creole,
European, Lebanese, and Asian; 13 tribes

Religion: 30% Muslim, 30% indigenous beliefs, 10% Christian, 30% other or
none

Language: English (official); regular use limited to literate minority;
principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north; Krio is the
language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is
lingua franca

Literacy: 31% (1986)

Labor force: 1,369,000 (est.); 65% agriculture, 19% industry, 16% services
(1981); only about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of population of working age

Organized labor: 35% of wage earners

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Sierra Leone

Type: republic under presidential regime

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern,
Western

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

Constitution: 14 June 1978

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local
tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH
(since 28 November 1985); First Vice President Abu Bakar KAMARA (since 4 April
1987); Second Vice President Salia JUSU-SHERIFF (since 4 April 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party–All People’s Congress
(APC), Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–last held 1 October 1985 (next to be held October 1992);
results–Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh was elected without opposition;

House of Representatives–last held 30 May 1986 (next to be
held May 1991);
results–APC is the only party;
seats–(127 total, 105 elected) APC 105

Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a slightly
larger number of sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador George CAREW; Chancery at
1701 19th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-9261;
US–Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and
Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown; telephone 26481

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and
light blue

Economy
Overview: The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed.
Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating about one-third of
GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working population. Manufacturing
accounts for less than 10% of GDP, consisting mainly of the processing of
raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining
provides an important source of hard currency. The economy suffers from high
unemployment, rising inflation, large trade deficits, and a growing dependency
on foreign assistance.

GDP: $965 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 1.8% (FY87)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 42% (September 1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $86 million; expenditures $128 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $106 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%,
coffee 3%;
partners–US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe

Imports: $167 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%,
consumer goods 7%, light industrial goods;
partners–US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria

External debt: $805 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 19% (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 83,000 kW capacity; 180 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery

Agriculture: accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the
labor force; largely subsistence farming; cash crops–coffee, cocoa, palm
kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs;
annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $149 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $698 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$101 million

Currency: leone (plural–leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones per US$1–87.7193 (January 1990), 58.1395 (1989),
31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987), 8.3963 (1986), 4.7304 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a
limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

Highways: 7,400 km total; 1,150 km bituminous, 490 km laterite (some
gravel), remainder improved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports: Freetown, Pepel

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 12 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: marginal telephone and telegraph service; national
microwave radio relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones;
stations–1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 918,078; 433,350 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP (1986)
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Singapore
Geography
Total area: 632.6 km2; land area: 622.6 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: 4% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5%
forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: mostly urban and industrialized

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

People
Population: 2,720,915 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Singaporean(s), adjective–Singapore

Ethnic divisions: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other

Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all
Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists,
Confucianists)

Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (official); Malay (national)

Literacy: 86.8% (1987)

Labor force: 1,280,000; 34.4% industry, 1.2% agriculture, 61.7%
services (1988)

Organized labor: 211,200; 16.5% of labor force (1988)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Singapore

Type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985);

Head of Government–Prime Minister LEE Kuan Yew (since 5 June 1959);
First Deputy Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 2 January 1985); Second Deputy
Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

Political parties and leaders: government–People’s Action Party (PAP),
Lee Kuan Yew; opposition–Workers’ Party (WP), J. B. Jeyaretnam;
Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), Chiam See Tong;
National Solidarity Party (NSP), Soon Kia Seng;
United People’s Front (UPF), Harbans Singh; Barisan Sosialis (BS);
Communist party illegal

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Elections:
President–last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held NA August 1993);
results–President Wee Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without opposition;

Parliament–last held 3 September 1988 (next to be held NA September
1993);
results–PAP 61.8%, WP 18.4%, SDP 11.5%, NSP 3.7%, UPF 1.3%, others 3.3%;
seats–(81 total) PAP 80, SDP 1; note–BS has 1 nonvoting seat

Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU,
ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tommy KOH Tong Bee; Chancery at
1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 667-7555;
US–Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
(mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96699); telephone Õ65å 338-0251

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist
side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is
toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars
arranged in a circle

Economy
Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong
service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the
economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per
capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the economy registered its
first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2% increase in 1986. Recovery
was strong. Estimates for 1989 suggest a 9.2% growth rate based on rising
demand for Singapore’s products in OECD countries, a strong Japanese yen, and
improved competitiveness of domestic manufactures.

GDP: $27.5 billion, per capita $10,300; real growth rate 9.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $5.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (FY88)

Exports: $46 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–includes
transshipments to Malaysia–petroleum products, rubber, electronics,
manufactured goods; partners–US 24%, Malaysia 14%, Japan 9%,
Thailand 6%, Hong Kong 5%, Australia 3%, FRG 3%

Imports: $53 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities–includes
transshipments from Malaysia–capital equipment, petroleum, chemicals,
manufactured goods, foodstuffs; partners–Japan 22%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%,
EC 12%, Kuwait 1%

External debt: $5.2 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,000,000 kW capacity; 12,000 million kWh produced,
4,490 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment,
rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship
repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy;
self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major
crops–rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $882 million

Currency: Singapore dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1–1.8895 (January 1990),
1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 2,597 km total (1984)

Ports: Singapore

Merchant marine: 407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,286,824
GRT/11,921,610 DWT; includes 126 cargo, 52 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 13 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier,
103 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker,
4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 15 liquefied gas, 68 bulk,
3 combination bulk; note–many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft (est.)

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international
service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000
telephones; stations–13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to
Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army Reserve

Military manpower: males 15-49, 834,720; 621,497 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1989 est.)
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Solomon Islands
Geography
Total area: 28,450 km2; land area: 27,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
93% forest and woodland; 4% other

Environment: subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors

Note: located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

People
Population: 335,082 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Solomon Islander(s); adjective–Solomon Islander

Ethnic divisions: 93.0% Melanesian, 4.0% Polynesian, 1.5% Micronesian,
0.8% European, 0.3% Chinese, 0.4% other

Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican, Seventh-Day
Adventist, and Roman Catholic Churches dominant

Language: 120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of the
country is lingua franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 23,448 economically active; 32.4% agriculture, forestry, and
fishing; 25% services, 7.0% construction, manufacturing, and mining;
4.7% commerce, transport, and finance (1984)

Organized labor: NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have trade
union representation

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: independent parliamentary state within Commonwealth

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal,
Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon Islands)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as
governor general since 7 July 1988);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28 March 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister Danny PHILIP (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
People’s Alliance Party (PAP), Solomon Mamaloni;
United Party (UP), Sir Peter Kenilorea;
Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew Ulufa’alu;
Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew Nori;
Labor Party (LP), Joses Tuhanuku

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
National Parliament–last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held
February 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2, independents 9

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, SPF, UN, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara
(Solomon Islands);
US–the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the
Solomon Islands; Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is
American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23488

Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed
stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

Economy
Overview: About 90% of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood.
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry contribute about 75% to GDP, with the
fishing and forestry sectors being important export earners. The service
sector contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing activity is
negligible. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be
imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as
lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe cyclone
in mid-1986 which caused widespread damage to the infrastructure.

GDP: $156 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 4.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $139.0 million; expenditures $154.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $113.4 million (1987)

Exports: $80.1 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–fish 46%,
timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%; partners–Japan 51%, UK 12%,
Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia 2%, US 2% (1985)

Imports: $101.7 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–plant and
machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%; partners–Japan 36%, US 23%,
Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia 4%, Hong Kong 4%, China 3% (1985)

External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987)

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about
75% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cash crops–cocoa, beans,
coconuts, palm kernels, timber; other products–rice, potatoes,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains;
90% of the total fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1985), $16.1 million

Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1–2.4067
(January 1990), 2.3090 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033 (1987), 1.7415 (1986),
1.4808 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km sealed, 290 km gravel,
980 km earth, 800 private logging and plantation roads of varied
construction

Ports: Honiara, Ringi Cove

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations–4 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
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Somalia
Geography
Total area: 637,660 km2; land area: 627,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km,
Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden;
possible claims to Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya based on unification of
ethnic Somalis

Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February),
cooler southwest monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid
periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, and largely unexploited reserves
of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures;
14% forest and woodland; 38% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

People
Population: 8,424,269 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 24 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Somali(s); adjective–Somali

Ethnic divisions: 85% Somali, rest mainly Bantu; 30,000 Arabs, 3,000
Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim

Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: 11.6% (government est.)

Labor force: 2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; 70% pastoral nomad,
30% agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and other; 53% of
population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions is controlled
by the government

Government
Long-form name: Somali Democratic Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 16 regions (plural–NA, singular–gobolka);
Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe,
Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose,
Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland,
which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 21 October (1969)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People’s Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President and Commander in Chief of the Army
Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre (since 21 October 1969);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mohamed Ali SAMANTAR
(since 1 February 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Somali Revolutionary
Socialist Party (SRSP), Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, general secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held
December 1993);
results–President Siad was reelected without opposition;

People’s Assembly–last held 31 December 1984 (next scheduled for
December 1989 was postponed);
results–SRSP is the only party;
seats–(177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171

Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government
hierarchy

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Arab League, EAMA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ABDIKARIM Ali Omar; Chancery at
Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador T. Frank CRIGLER; Embassy at Corso Primo Luglio, Mogadishu
(mailing address is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone Õ252å (01) 20811

Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center;
design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

Economy
Overview: One of the world’s least developed countries, Somalia
has few resources. In 1988 per capita GDP was $210. Agriculture is the
most important sector of the economy, with the livestock sector
accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads
and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods
make up about 50% of the population. Crop production generates only 10%
of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is
bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The
small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural
products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. At the end of 1988
serious economic problems facing the nation were the external debt of
$2.8 billion and double-digit inflation.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate – 1.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.7% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $273 million; expenditures $405 million, including
capital expenditures of $219 million (1987)

Exports: $58.0 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–livestock,
hides, skins, bananas, fish;
partners–US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $354.0 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–textiles,
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials;
partners–US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

External debt: $2.8 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 71,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced,
8 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining

Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep,
goats); crops–bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient
in food; fishing potential largely unexploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $618 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$336 million

Currency: Somali shilling (plural–shillings);
1 Somali shilling (So.Sh.) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1–643.92
(December 1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986), 39.49 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 15,215 km total; including 2,335 km bituminous surface, 2,880 km
gravel, and 10,000 km improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)

Pipelines: 15 km crude oil

Ports: Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu

Merchant marine: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,563
GRT/9,512 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 60 total, 45 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: minimal telephone and telegraph service; radio relay
and troposcatter system centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns; 6,000
telephones; stations–2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station;
scheduled to receive an ARABSAT station

Defense Forces
Branches: Somali National Army (including Navy, Air Force, and Air Defense
Force), National Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,878,939; 1,052,644 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
South Africa
Geography
Total area: 1,221,040 km2; land area: 1,221,040 km2; includes
Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km,
Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,881 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: South Africa administered Namibia until independence was
achieved on 21 March 1990; possible future claim to Walvis Bay by Namibia

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal
plain

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 65% meadows and
pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires
extensive water conservation and control measures

Note: Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia; completely
surrounds Lesotho; almost completely surrounds Swaziland

People
Population: 39,549,941 (July 1990), growth rate 2.67%; includes the 10
so-called homelands, which are not recognized by the US

four independent homelands–Bophuthatswana 2,352,296, growth rate 2.80%;
Ciskei 1,025,873, growth rate 2.93%; Transkei 4,367,648, growth rate 4.19%;
Venda 665,197, growth rate 3.86%

six other homelands–Gazankulu 742,361, growth rate 3.99%; Kangwane 556,009,
growth rate 3.64%; KwaNdebele 348,655, growth rate 3.35%; KwaZulu 5,349,247,
growth rate 3.62%; Lebowa 2,704,641, growth rate 3.92%; Qwagwa 268,138, growth
rate 3.59%

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–South African(s); adjective–South African

Ethnic divisions: 73.8% black, 14.3% white, 9.1% Colored, 2.8% Indian

Religion: most whites and Coloreds and roughly 60% of blacks are
Christian; roughly 60% of Indians are Hindu, 20% Muslim

Language: Afrikaans, English (official); many vernacular languages,
including Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana

Literacy: almost all white population literate; government estimates 50%
of blacks literate

Labor force: 11,000,000 economically active; 34% services,
30% agriculture, 29% industry and commerce, 7% mining (1985)

Organized labor: about 17% of total labor force is unionized;
African unions represent 15% of black labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA

Type: republic

Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town; judicial,
Bloemfontein

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free State,
Transvaal; there are 10 homelands not recognized by the US–4 independent
(Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane,
KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, Qwaqwa)

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 September 1984

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May (1910)

Executive branch: state president, cabinet, Executive Council (cabinet)
Ministers’ Councils (from the

Collection Of Complete World Facts Volume 4 (1990)

Macau
(overseas territory of Portugal)
Geography
Total area: 16 km2; land area: 16 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 0.34 km with China

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China
in 1999

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect
the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

Note: 27 km west southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of
China

People
Population: 441,691 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Macanese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Macau

Ethnic divisions: 95% Chinese, 3% Portuguese, 2% other

Religion: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Roman Catholics, of whom about half are
Chinese

Language: Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of
commerce

Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese and Macanese; no data on Chinese
population

Labor force: 180,000 (1986)

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China
in 1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular–concelho);
Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an agreement
with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau’s existing social and
economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Executive branch: president of Portugal, governor, Consultative Council,
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since
9 March 1986);

Head of Government–Governor Carlos MELANCIA (since 3 July 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of
Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau
Independent Group

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held on 9 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1991);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(17 total; 6 elected by universal suffrage, 6 by indirect
suffrage) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants representing
China’s interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese
demands that gave China veto power over administration

Member of: Multifiber Agreement

Diplomatic representation: as Chinese territory under Portuguese
administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal;
US–the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored
by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag: the flag of Portugal is used

Economy
Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have
spawned other small industries–toys, artificial flowers, and electronics.
The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing
industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings. Macau depends on
China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong
are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.); commodities–textiles, clothing,
toys;
partners–US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.); commodities–raw materials,
foodstuffs, capital goods;
partners–Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)

External debt: $91 million (1985)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 485 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages–rice, vegetables, meat;
depends mostly on imports for food requirements

Aid: none

Currency: pataca (plural–patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1–8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988),
7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985); note–linked to the Hong Kong dollar
at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 42 km paved

Ports: Macau

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: none; 1 seaplane station

Telecommunications: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for
domestic and international services; 52,000 telephones; stations–4 AM, 3 FM,
no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio
communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided
via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,956; 93,221 fit for military service

Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal
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Madagascar
Geography
Total area: 587,040 km2; land area: 581,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt,
quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use: 4% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 58% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: world’s fourth-largest island; strategic location
along Mozambique Channel

People
Population: 11,800,524 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective–Malagasy

Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly
Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000) on the
one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed
African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety
442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the other; there are also
11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 5,000 Creoles

Religion: 52% indigenous beliefs; about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim

Language: French and Malagasy (official)

Literacy: 67.5%

Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in
subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners–26% agriculture, 17% domestic
service, 15% industry, 14% commerce, 11% construction, 9% services,
6% transportation, 2% other; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 4% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

Type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural–NA, singular–faritanin);
Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)

Constitution: 21 December 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Executive branch: president, Supreme Council of the Revolution,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale Populaire)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional
Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Lt. Col. Victor RAMAHATRA (since
12 February 1988)

Political parties and leaders: seven parties are now allowed limited
political activity under the national front and are represented on the Supreme
Revolutionary Council: Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier
Ratsiraka; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM);
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival (AKFM-R), Pastor Richard
Andriamanjato; Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama Razanabahiny;
Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert Andriamorasata; Militants
for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), Manandafy Rakotonirina;
National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja Jaona;
Socialist Organization Monima (VSM, an offshoot of MONIMA), Tsihozony
Maharanga

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held March 1996);
results–Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM/MFT)
20%, Dr. Jerome Marojama Razanabahiny (VONJY) 15%, Monja Jaona
(MONIMA) 3%;

People’s National Assembly–last held on 28 May 1989 (next to
be held May 1994);
results–AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, others 0.8%;
seats–(137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1,
independent 1

Communists: Communist party of virtually no importance; small and vocal
group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of AKFM, the rank
and file of which is non-Communist

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO;
Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-5525 or 5526; there is a Malagasy Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo);
telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical
white band of the same width on hoist side

Economy
Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world.
During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and
a – 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is
the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing about
85% of the labor force, and contributing more than 70% to export earnings.
Industry is confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile
manufacturing; in 1988 it contributed only 16% to GDP and employed 3% of the
labor force. Industrial development has been hampered by government policies
that have restricted imports of equipment and spare parts and put strict
controls on foreign-owned enterprises. In 1986 the government introduced a
five-year development plan that stresses self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice)
by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $155; real growth rate 2.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $337 million; expenditures $245 million, including
capital expenditures of $163 million (1988)

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum
products; partners–France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $319 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%; partners–France, FRG, UK,
other EC, US

External debt: $3.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate – 3.9 % (1988)

Electricity: 119,000 kW capacity; 430 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories,
brewery, tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer goods industries (textiles,
glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops–coffee, vanilla,
sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops–rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts;
cattle raising widespread; not self-sufficient in rice and wheat flour

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $118 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.6 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $491 million

Currency: Malagasy franc (plural–francs);
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1–1,531.0 (January 1990),
1603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987), 676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone, gravel,
or stabilized soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved earth (est.)

Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports: Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara

Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,126
GRT/79,420 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 147 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, radio relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain;
satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT;
over 38,200 telephones; stations–14 AM, 1 FM, 7 (30 repeaters) TV

Defense Forces
Branches: Popular Army, Aeronaval Forces (includes Navy and Air Force),
paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,550,775; 1,519,084 fit for military
service; 116,438 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.2% of GDP, or $37 million (1989 est.)
.pa
Malawi
Geography
Total area: 118,480 km2; land area: 94,080 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km,
Zambia 837 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to
November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium, coal,
and bauxite

Land use: 25% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 20% meadows and
pastures; 50% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

People
Population: 9,157,528 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 16 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 130 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Malawian(s); adjective–Malawian

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni,
Ngonde, Asian, European

Religion: 55% Protestant, 20% Roman Catholic, 20% Muslim; traditional
indigenous beliefs are also practiced

Language: English and Chichewa (official); other languages important
regionally

Literacy: 41.2%

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; 43% agriculture, 16% manufacturing,
15% personal services, 9% commerce, 7% construction, 4% miscellaneous services,
6% other permanently employed (1986)

Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Malawi

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu,
Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Kasupe, Lilongwe, Mangochi, Mchinji,
Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi,
Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu
BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July 1971)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Malawi Congress Party
(MCP), Maxwell Pashane, administrative secretary; John Tembo, treasurer
general; top party position of secretary general vacant since 1983

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–President Banda sworn in as President for Life on
6 July 1971;

National Assembly–last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held
by May 1992);
results–MCP is the only party;
seats–(133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, EC (associated member), FAO,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-1007;
US–Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city
development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe);
telephone 730-166

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a
radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of
Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed on
the hoist side of the black and red bands

Economy
Overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world’s least
developed with a per capita GDP of $180. The economy is predominately
agricultural and operates under a relatively free enterprise
environment, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas.
Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. After
two years of weak performance, economic growth improved significantly
in 1988 as a result of good weather and a broadly based economic
adjustment effort by the government. The closure of traditional trade
routes through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $180; growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $246 million; expenditures $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $97 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $292 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–tobacco,
tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts; partners–US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–food,
petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment;
partners–South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

External debt: $1.4 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1988)

Electricity: 181,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling,
cement, consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops–tobacco,
sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops–potatoes, cassava,
sorghum, pulses; livestock–cattle and goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $182 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.8 billion

Currency: Malawian kwacha (plural–kwacha);
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1–2.6793 (January 1990),
2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611 (1986), 1.7191 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone, gravel,
or stabilized soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota–all on Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 48 total, 47 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and
radio communication stations; 36,800 telephones; stations–8 AM, 4 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the
Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa because of
insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Army Air Wing, Army Naval Detachment, paramilitary
Police Mobile Force Unit, paramilitary Young Pioneers

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,904,445; 967,032 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $22 million (1989 est.)
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Malaysia
Geography
Total area: 329,750 km2; land area: 328,550 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,669 km total; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782,
Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km total (2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia,
2,607 km East Malaysia)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation,
specified boundary in the South China Sea;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; state of Sabah claimed by the
Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
Brunei into two parts

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Natural resources: tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore,
natural gas, bauxite

Land use: 3% arable land; 10% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 63% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to flooding; air and water pollution

Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern
South China Sea

People
Population: 17,510,546 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Malaysian(s); adjective–Malaysian

Ethnic divisions: 59% Malay and other indigenous, 32% Chinese, 9% Indian

Religion: Peninsular Malaysia–Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese
predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah–38% Muslim,
17% Christian, 45% other; Sarawak–35% tribal religion, 24% Buddhist and
Confucianist, 20% Muslim, 16% Christian, 5% other

Language: Peninsular Malaysia–Malay (official); English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah–English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and
Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak–English, Malay, Mandarin,
numerous tribal languages

Literacy: 65.0% overall, age 20 and up; Peninsular Malaysia–80%;
Sabah–60%; Sarawak–60%

Labor force: 6,800,000; 30.8% agriculture, 17% manufacturing,
13.6% government, 5.8% construction, 4.3% finance, 3.4% business services,
transport and communications, 0.6% mining, 24.5% other (1989 est.)

Organized labor: 660,000, 10% of total labor force (1988)

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional monarchy
nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament
composed of a 58-member Senate and a 177-member House of Representatives;
Peninsular Malaysian states–hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Melaka,
where governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state
governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah–self-governing state,
holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government;
Sarawak–self-governing state within Malaysia, holds 24 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular–negeri) and
2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan,
singular–wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka,
Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor,
Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when
Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Executive branch: paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Dewan Negara) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan
Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA’AFAR ibni Abdul
Rahman (since 26 April 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since
16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Peninsular
Malaysia–National Front, a confederation of 14 political parties
dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru),
Mahathir bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Ling Liong Sik;
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk Lim Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress
(MIC), Datuk Samy Vellu;

Sabah–Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohamed Noor Mansoor; Bersatu Sabah
(PBS), Joseph Pairin Kitingan; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO),
Tun Datuk Mustapha;

Sarawak–coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party
Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib
Mahmud; Sarawak United People’s Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen Yong
Kuat Tze; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James Wong; Parti Bansa
Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo Moggie; major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), Lim Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic
Party (PAS), Fadzil Noor

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held 2-3 August 1986 (next to be held
by August 1991);
results–National Front 57.4%, DAP 20.8%, PAS 15.6%, independents 3.3%,
others 2.9%; note–within the National Front, UMNO got 35% and MCA
14% of the vote;
seats–(177 total) National Front 148, DAP 24, PAS 1, independents 4;
note–within the National Front, UMNO got 83 seats and MCA 17 seats

Communists: Peninsular Malaysia–about 1,000 armed insurgents on
Thailand side of international boundary and about 200 full time inside
Malaysia surrendered on 2 December 1989; only about 100 Communist
insurgents remain in North Kalimantan and Sabah

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries,
CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC,
ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert S. TALALLA; Chancery at
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2700;
there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US–Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak,
50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur);
telephone Õ6å (03) 248-9011

Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with
white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing
a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star
are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

Economy
Overview: In 1988-89 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to recover
from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.7% in 1988 and
about 7.7% in 1989, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing output and
further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly from
Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home. Malaysia has
become the world’s third-largest producer of semiconductor devices
(after the US and Japan) and the world’s largest exporter of semiconductor
devices. Inflation remained low as unemployment stood at about 8% of
the labor force and as the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary
policies. The country is not self-sufficient in food, and a majority
of the rural population subsists at the poverty level. Malaysia’s
high export dependence (merchandise exports are 63% of GDP) leaves
it vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in
world commodity prices.

GDP: $37.9 billion, per capita $2,270; real growth rate 7.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $8.8 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $24 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–natural
rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, electronics, light manufactures;
partners–Singapore, Japan, USSR, EC, Australia, US

Imports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–food, crude
oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods, capital equipment, chemicals;
partners–Japan, Singapore, FRG, UK, Thailand, China, Australia, US

External debt: $16.3 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 13.6% (1988)

Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced,
990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia–rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and
smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah–logging, petroleum production;
Sarawak–agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia–natural rubber, palm oil, rice;
Sabah–mainly subsistence; main crops–rubber, timber, coconut, rice;
Sarawak–main crops–rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit of rice
in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

Currency: ringgit (plural–ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1–2.7038 (January 1990),
2.7087 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814 (1986), 2.4830 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: Peninsular Malaysia–1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double
track, government owned; Sabah–136 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: Peninsular Malaysia–23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly
bituminous-surface treatment, and 4,248 km unpaved); Sabah–3,782 km;
Sarawak–1,644 km

Inland waterways: Peninsular Malaysia–3,209 km; Sabah–1,569 km;
Sarawak–2,518 km

Ports: Tanjong, Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang,
Port Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau

Merchant marine: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,525,635
GRT/2,216,215 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 21 container,
2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 28 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas,
1 specialized tanker, 1 passenger-cargo, 22 bulk, 1 passenger

Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,307 km; natural gas, 379 km

Airports: 126 total, 121 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good intercity service provided to peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave relay, adequate intercity radio relay network between Sabah
and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good; good coverage by radio and
television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones (1984); stations–28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV;
submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to
Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air
Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,499,495; 2,744,743 fit for military
service; 178,923 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1990 est.)
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Maldives
Geography
Total area: 300 km2; land area: 300 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: about 100 nm (defined by geographic
coordinates);

Extended economic zone: 37-310 nm (segment of zone coincides with
maritime boundary with India);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: 1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls

Note: archipelago of strategic location astride and along
major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

People
Population: 217,945 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 76 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Maldivian(s); adjective–Maldivian

Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and black

Religion: Sunni Muslim

Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic); English
spoken by most government officials

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 66,000 (est.); 80% engaged in fishing industry

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Maldives

Type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu,
Gaafu
Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu,
Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

Constitution: 4 June 1964

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law
primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens’ Council (Majlis)

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM
(since since 11 November 1978)

Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties; country
governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September
1994);
results–President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom reelected;

Citizens’ Council–last held on 7 December 1984 (next to be held
7 December 1989);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(48 total, 40 elected)

Communists: negligible

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth (special member), ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Maldives does not maintain an embassy
in the US, but does have a UN mission in New York;
US–the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and
makes periodic visits there; US Consular Agency, Mahduedurage, Violet
Magu, Henveru, Male; telephone 2581

Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical
white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping.
Agriculture is limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide
only 10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing 80%
of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is also an
important source of government revenue. During the 1980s tourism has become one
of the most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1988
industry accounted for about 14% of GDP. Real GDP is officially
estimated to have increased by about 10% annually during the period
1974-86, and GDP estimates for 1988 show a further growth of 9% on
the strength of a record fish catch and an improved tourist season.

GDP: $136 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 9.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $51 million; expenditures $50 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $47.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–fish 57%,
clothing 39%; partners–Thailand, Western Europe, Sri Lanka

Imports: $90.0 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–
intermediate and capital goods 47%, consumer goods 42%, petroleum products 11%;
partners–Japan, Western Europe, Thailand

External debt: $70 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat
building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope),
handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing more important than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn,
sweet potatoes; most staple foods must be imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

Currency: rufiyaa (plural–rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1–9.3043 (January 1990),
9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987), 7.1507 (1986), 7.0981 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city

Ports: Male, Gan

Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,066
GRT/112,480 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: minimal domestic and international facilities;
2,325 telephones; stations–2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

Defense Forces
Branches: no military force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,261; 27,519 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: $1.8 million (1984 est.)
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Mali
Geography
Total area: 1,240,000 km2; land area: 1,220,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km,
Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal
419 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the
ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including
the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna
in south, rugged hills in northeast

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone,
uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known
but not exploited

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and
pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 66% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons;
desertification

Note: landlocked

People
Population: 8,142,373 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Malian(s); adjective–Malian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), 17% Peul, 12%
Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 5% Tuareg and Moor, 10% other

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% indigenous beliefs, 1% Christian

Language: French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the
population; numerous African languages

Literacy: 18%

Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); 80% agriculture, 19% services,
1% industry and commerce (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella
organization for over 13 national unions

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Mali

Type: republic; single-party constitutional government

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular–region); Gao,
Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou; note–there may be a new
capital district of Bamako

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)

Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981
and March 1985

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
22 September (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. Moussa TRAORE
(since 6 December 1968)

Political parties and leaders: only party–Democratic Union of
Malian People (UDPM)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held June 1991);
results–General Moussa Traore was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly–last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held June
1991); results–UDPM is the only party; seats–(82 total) UDPM 82

Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers (no legal Communist
party)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU,
OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River
Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO,

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alhousseyni TOURE; Chancery
at 2130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-2249 or
939-8950;
US–Ambassador Robert M. PRINGLE; Embassy at Rue Testard and
Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone 225834

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy
Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about
80% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely
confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the
population lives as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in
agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities.

GDP: $1.94 billion, per capita $220; real growth rate – 0.9% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $338 million; expenditures $559 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–livestock,
peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins; partners–mostly franc zone and
Western Europe

Imports: $493 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–textiles,
vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals; partners–mostly
franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.1 billion (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 165 million kWh produced,
20 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction,
phosphate, gold, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small
subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of
exports; other crops–millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
livestock–cattle, sheep, and goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $313 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$190 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal’s rail
system through Kayes

Highways: about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km
gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic system poor but improving; provides only
minimal service with radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations;
expansion of radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones; stations–2 AM, 2 FM,
2 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary, Gendarmerie,
Republican Guard, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,585,878; 913,000 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1987)
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Malta
Geography
Total area: 320 km2; land area: 320 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use: 38% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 59% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very
scarce–increasing reliance on desalination

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south
of Sicily, 290 km north of Libya

People
Population: 353,465 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Maltese

Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian,
English

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: Maltese and English (official)

Literacy: 83%

Labor force: 125,674; 30% services, 24% manufacturing, 21% government
(except job corps), 8% construction, 5% utilities and drydocks, 4% agriculture
(1987)

Organized labor: about 40% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Malta

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH
ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO
(since 14 May 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party, Edward Fenech Adami;
Malta Labor Party, Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held on 9 May 1987 (next to be
held by May 1992);
results–NP 51.1%, MLP 48.9%;
seats–(usually 65 total, but additional seats are given to the party with the
largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total 69)
MLP 34, NP 31 before popular vote adjustment; MLP 34, NP 35
after adjustment

Communists: fewer than 100 (est.)

Member of: CCC, Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council,
NAM,UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Salvatore J. STELLINI; Chancery at
2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3611
or 3612; there is a Maltese Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development House,
St. Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O. Box 535,
Valletta); telephone Õ356å 623653 or 620424, 623216

Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

Economy
Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic
location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its
food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy
sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and
services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest contributors to the
economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 30% of GDP, with the textile and
clothing industry a major contributor. In 1988 inflation was held to a low 0.9%.
Per capita GDP at $5,100 places Malta in the middle-income range of the world’s
nations.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $5,100; real growth rate 7.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1987)

Budget: revenues $844 million; expenditures $938 million, including
capital expenditures of $226 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $710 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–clothing,
textiles, footwear, ships; partners–FRG 31%, UK 14%, Italy 14%

Imports: $1,360 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–food,
petroleum, nonfood raw materials; partners–FRG 19%, UK 17%, Italy 17%,
US 11%

External debt: $90 million, medium and long-term (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.2% (1987)

Electricity: 328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced,
2,990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, ship repair yard, clothing, construction,
food manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

Agriculture: overall, 20% self-sufficient; main products–potatoes,
cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green
peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables,
poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain,
animal fodder, fruits, other basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $332 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$48 million

Currency: Maltese lira (plural–liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1–0.3332 (January 1990),
0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987), 0.3924 (1986), 0.4676 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or
gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth

Ports: Valletta, Marsaxlokk

Merchant marine: 314 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,677,797
GRT/6,357,733 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 127 cargo,
2 container, 1 passenger-cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
6 refrigerated cargo, 7 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 61 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
72 bulk, 11 combination bulk; note–a flag of convenience registry;
China owns 1 ship, Cuba owns 8, and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern automatic system centered in Valletta;
153,000 telephones; stations–9 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 1 submarine cable; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Armed Forces, Police, Paramilitary Dejima Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 92,610; 74,256 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.3% of GDP, or $25 million (1989 est.)
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Man, Isle of
(British crown dependency)
Geography
Total area: 588 km2; land area: 588 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half
the time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; extensive arable land and forests

Environment: strong westerly winds prevail

Note: located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland,
and Ireland

People
Population: 64,859 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Manxman, Manxwoman, adjective–Manx

Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Society of Friends

Language: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between ages of 5 and 15

Labor force: 25,864 (1981)

Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned along British lines

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Tynwald) consists of an upper
house or Legislative Council and a lower house or House of Keys

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State–Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Maj. Gen. Laurence NEW
(since 1985);

Head of Government–President of the Legislative Council J. C. NIVISON
(since 1985)

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and members sit
as independents

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Keys–last held in 1986 (next to be held 1991);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(24 total) independents 24

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the
center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order
to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided
emblem is used

Economy
Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of
the economy. The government’s policy of offering incentives to high-technology
companies and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in
expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result,
agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in
their shares of GNP. Banking now contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing
about 15%. Trade is mostly with the UK.

GNP: $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate NA% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1988)

Budget: revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities–tweeds, herring, processed shellfish
meat; partners–UK

Imports: $NA; commodities–timber, fertilizers, fish;
partners–UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
2,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: an important offshore financial center; financial services,
light manufacturing, tourism

Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Aid: NA

Currency: Manx pound (plural–pounds); 1 Manx pound (LM) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (LM) per US$1–0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track

Highways: 640 km motorable roads

Ports: Douglas, Ramsey, Peel

Merchant marine: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,656,216
GRT/2,984,047 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 5 container,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
5 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 6 liquefied gas, 12 bulk;
note–a captive register of the United Kingdom, although not all
ships on the register are British-owned

Airports: 2 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 24,435 telephones; stations–1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
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Marshall Islands
Geography
Total area: 181.3 km2; land area: 181.3 km2; includes the atolls
of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims US-administered Wake Island

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border
typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use: 0% arable land; 60% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 40% other

Environment: occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic
island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands

Note: located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea; Bikini and
Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II
battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

People
Population: 43,417 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Marshallese; adjective–Marshallese

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Micronesian

Religion: predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant

Language: English universally spoken and is the official language;
two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 4,800 (1986)

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Marshall Islands

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US;
the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship;
formerly the Marshall Islands District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands,
1 May (1979)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Nitijela)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Amata KABUA (since 1979)

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President Kabua
is chief political (and traditional) leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results–President Amata Kabua was reelected;

Parliament–last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(33 total)

Communists: none

Member of: SPF, ESCAP (associate)

Diplomatic representation: Representative Wilfred I. KENDALL;
Representative Office at Suite 1004, 1901 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 223-4952;
US–Representative Samuel B. THOMSEN; US Office at NA address (mailing
address is P. O. Box 680, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960);
telephone 692-9-3348

Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side
corner–orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large
rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

Economy
Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy.
Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important
commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle
ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to
handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary
source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands
have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US
Government provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of
$55 million.

GDP: $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities–copra, copra oil,
agricultural products, handicrafts; partners–NA

Imports: $29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities–foodstuffs,
beverages, building materials; partners–NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 12,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearl;
offshore banking (embryonic)

Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra; pigs,
chickens

Aid: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to
provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: macadam and concrete roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein),
otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports: Majuro

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 475,968
GRT/949,888 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 bulk carrier; note–a flag of convenience registry

Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: telephone network–570 lines (Majuro) and 186
(Ebeye); telex services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used
mostly for government purposes); stations–1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave;
2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite communications
system on Kwajalein

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Martinique
(overseas department of France)
Geography
Total area: 1,100 km2; land area: 1,060 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 290 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October)

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use: 10% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 30% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 26% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that
result in an average of one major natural disaster every five years

Note: located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

People
Population: 340,381 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Martiniquais (sing. and pl.); adjective–Martiniquais

Ethnic divisions: 90% African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture, 5%
Caucasian, less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African

Language: French, Creole patois

Literacy: over 70%

Labor force: 100,000; 31.7% service industry, 29.4% construction and
public works, 13.1% agriculture, 7.3% industry, 2.2% fisheries, 16.3% other

Organized labor: 11% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Department of Martinique

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional
Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government–Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE (since
5 May 1989); President of the General Council Emile MAURICE (since NA
1988)

Political parties: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen Bago;
Union of the Left composed of the Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM),
Aime Cesaire; Socialist Federation of Martinique, Michael Yoyo; and the
Communist Party of Martinique (PCM), Armand Nicolas; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Jean Maran

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council–last held on NA October 1988
(next to be held by March 1991); results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(44 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Assembly–last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by
March 1992); results–UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM
coalition 41.3%, others 8.9%;
seats–(41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20;

French Senate–last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1;

French National Assembly–last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next
to be held June 1993); results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1

Communists: 1,000 (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP);
Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS), Martinique Independence
Movement (MIM), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC), Central Union for
Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of
Workers and Peasants

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Martiniquais interests are represented in the US by France;
US–Consul General Ray ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue Blenac,
Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France);
telephone Õ596å 63-13-03

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light
industry. Agriculture accounts for about 7% of GDP and the small industrial
sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now
used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, however, going
mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be
imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work
force is employed in the service sector and in administration. In 1984 the
annual per capita income was relatively high at $3,650. During 1985 the
unemployment rate was between 25% and 30% and was particularly severe among
younger workers.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $3,650; real growth rate NA% (1984)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 25-30% (1985)

Budget: revenues $223 million; expenditures $223 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $209 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities–refined petroleum
products, bananas, rum, pineapples; partners–France 65%, Guadeloupe 26%
(1986)

Imports: $879 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities–petroleum
products, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other
consumer goods; partners–France 64% (1986)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 108,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced,
990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP; principal crops–pineapples,
avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, and sugarcane for rum; dependent on
imported food, particularly meat and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $9.8 billion

Currency: French franc (plural–francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1–5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

Ports: Fort-de-France

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones;
interisland radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and St. Lucia;
stations–1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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Mauritania
Geography
Total area: 1,030,700 km2; land area: 1,030,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: 5,074 km total; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal
813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: armed conflict in Western Sahara; boundary with Senegal

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 38% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 56% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily
in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

People
Population: 1,934,549 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 96 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mauritanian(s); adjective–Mauritanian

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed Maur/black, 30% Maur, 30% black

Religion: nearly 100% Muslim

Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); French (official); Toucouleur, Fula,
Sarakole, Wolof

Literacy: 17%

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980);
47% agriculture, 29% services, 14% industry and commerce, 10% government;
53% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed by single union, Mauritanian
Workers’ Union

Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Type: republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup 10 July
1978; a palace coup that took place on 24 December 1984 brought President
Taya to power

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular–region);
Adrar, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, El Acaba, Gorgol, Guidimaka,
Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza;
note–there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 20 May 1961, abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978;
provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in 1981; new
constitutional charter published 27 February 1985

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National
Salvation (CMSN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale), dissolved after 10 July 1978 coup; legislative power
resides with the CMSN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Col. Maaouiya Ould
SidAhmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

Political parties and leaders: suspended

Suffrage: none

Elections: none; last presidential election August 1976;
National Assembly dissolved 10 July 1978; no national elections
are scheduled

Communists: no Communist party, but there is a scattering of Maoist
sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, CCC, CEAO, CIPEC (associate),
EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley),
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdellah OULD DADDAH; Chancery at
2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5700;
US–Ambassador William H. TWADDELL; Embassy at address NA, Nouakchott
(mailing address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone Õ2222å 52660 or 52663

Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economy
Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture
and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent drought in 1983.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore that account for almost 50% of
total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to
cutbacks in production in recent years. The nation’s coastal waters are among
the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners
threatens this key source of revenue. The country’s first deepwater
port opened near Nouakchott in 1986.

GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $520; real growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $334 million, including
capital expenditures of $79 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $424 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–iron ore,
processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic and gypsum, unrecorded but
numerically significant cattle exports to Senegal; partners–EC 57%,
Japan 39%, Ivory Coast 2%

Imports: $365 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–foodstuffs,
consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods; partners–EC 79%,
Africa 5%, US 4%, Japan 2%

External debt: $2.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 189,000 kW capacity; 136 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Agriculture: accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal
river valley; crops–dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products
number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $160 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.1 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$277 million

Currency: ouguiya (plural–ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiya (UM) per US$1–83.838 (January 1990),
83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987), 74.375 (1986), 77.085 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 670 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track, owned and
operated by government mining company

Highways: 7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed stone,
or otherwise improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks

Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,272 GRT/
1,840 DWT

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 29 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
radio relay links, and radio communications stations; 5,200 telephones;
stations–2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 ARABSAT, with a third planned

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary
National Guard, paramilitary National Police, paramilitary Presidential Guard,
paramilitary Nomad Security Guards

Military manpower: males 15-49, 410,153; 200,212 fit for military service;
conscription law not implemented

Defense expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (1987)
.pa
Mauritius
Geography
Total area: 1,860 km2; land area: 1,850 km2; includes Agalega
Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (St. Brandon) and Rodrigues

Comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: 54% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs

Note: located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

People
Population: 1,070,005 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mauritian(s); adjective–Mauritian

Ethnic divisions: 68% Indo-Mauritian, 27% Creole, 3% Sino-Mauritian, 2%
Franco-Mauritian

Religion: 51% Hindu, 30% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic with a few
Anglicans), 17% Muslim, 2% other

Language: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

Literacy: 82.8%

Labor force: 335,000; 29% government services, 27% agriculture and
fishing, 22% manufacturing, 22% other; 43% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force in more than 270 unions

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 5 urban councils and 3 district councils*;
Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Curepipe, Moka-Flacq*, North*, Port Louis, Quatre
Bornes, South*, Vacoas-Phoenix; note–there may now be 4 urban councils
and 9 district councils* named Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Black River*,
Curepipe, Flacq*, Grand Port*, Moka*, Pamplemousses*, Plaine Wilhems*,
Port Louis*, Quartre Bornes, Riviere du Rempart*, Savanne*, and
Vacoas-Phoenix

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: 12 March 1968

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English
common law in certain areas

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January
1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June
1982); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Satcam BOOLELL (since 15 August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: the government is currently controlled by a
coalition composed of the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. Jugnauth,
and the Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), S. Boolell; the main opposition union
consists of the Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Prem Nababsing; Socialist
Workers Front, Sylvio Michel; Democratic Labor Movement, Anil Baichoo;
Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. Duval

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held on 30 August 1987 (next to be held 30
August 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(70 total, 62 elected) MSM 24, MMM 21, MLP 10, PMSD 5, others 10

Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Communist organizations;
Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women’s Committee, Mauritius
Communist Party, Mauritius People’s Progressive Party, Mauritius Young Communist
League, Mauritius Liberation Front, Chinese Middle School Friendly Association,
Mauritius/USSR Friendship Society

Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU,
IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING; Chancery
at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492;
US–Ambassador Penne KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers Building,
John Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone 082347

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles),
and tourism. Despite significant expansion in other sectors over the past
decade, sugarcane remains dominant and is grown on about 90% of the cultivated
land area, accounting for 40% of export earnings. The government’s
development strategy is centered on industrialization (with a view to exports),
agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in 1988 was
impressive, with 6.3% real growth rate and low unemployment.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $1,910; real growth rate 6.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1988)

Budget: revenues $351 million; expenditures $414 million, including
capital expenditures of $76 million (FY87 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–textiles 44%,
sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%; partners–EC and US have preferential
treatment, EC 77%, US 15%

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–manufactured
goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%,
chemicals 7%; partners–EC, US, South Africa, Japan

External debt: $670 million (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (FY87)

Electricity: 233,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced,
375 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing
apparel, chemical and chemical products, metal products, transport equipment,
nonelectrical machinery, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in
sugarcane; other products–tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats,
fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $72 million; Western
(non-US) countries (1970-87), $538 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $54
million

Currency: Mauritian rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1–15.033 (January 1990),
15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988), 12.878 (1987), 13.466 (1986), 15.442 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Highways: 1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth

Ports: Port Louis

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 143,029 GRT/
248,754 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 3 bulk

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: small system with good service; new microwave link to
Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries; 48,000 telephones;
stations–2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: paramilitary Special Mobile Force, Special Support Units,
regular Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 297,975; 153,130 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
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Mayotte
(territorial collectivity of France)
Geography
Total area: 375 km2; land area: 375 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Comoros

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern
monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

Terrain: generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to cyclones during rainy season

Note: part of Comoro Archipelago; located in the Mozambique Channel about
halfway between Africa and Madagascar

People
Population: 72,186 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mahorais (sing., pl.); adjective–Mahoran

Religion: 99% Muslim; remainder Christian, mostly Roman Catholic

Language: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Dzaoudzi

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (Conseil General)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d’Appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government Government Commissioner Akli KHIDER (since 1983);
President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since 1976)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Zna
M’Oere; Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche Maoulida;
Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RMPR), Abdoul Anizizi; Union of the
Center (UDC)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council–last held NA June 1988 (next to be held June
1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(17 total) MPM 9, RPR 6, others 2;

French Senate–last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) MPM 1;

French National Assembly–last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to
be held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) UDC 1

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
Mahoran interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural
sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient
and must import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly
from France. The economy and future development of the island is heavily
dependent on French financial assistance.

GDP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities–ylang-ylang,
vanilla; partners–France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%

Imports: $21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities–building
materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour;
partners–France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Agriculture: most important sector; provides all export earnings;
crops–vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food
needs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $287.8 million

Currency: French franc (plural–francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1–5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 42 km total; 18 km bituminous

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: Dzaoudzi

Telecommunications: small system administered by French Department of
Posts and Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links with Comoros and international communications;
450 telephones; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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Mexico
Geography
Total area: 1,972,550 km2; land area: 1,923,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,538 km total; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km,
US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: natural prolongation of continental margin or
200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert

Natural resources: crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and
pastures; 24% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive
earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted
in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast;
deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in
Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border

Note: strategic location on southern border of US

People
Population: 87,870,154 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mexican(s); adjective–Mexican

Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian, 9% white or predominantly white, 1% other

Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 88%

Labor force: 26,100,000 (1988); 31.4% services; 26% agriculture, forestry,
hunting, and fishing, 13.9% commerce, 12.8% manufacturing, 9.5% construction,
4.8% transportation, 1.3% mining and quarrying, 0.3% electricity, (1986)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: United Mexican States

Type: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular–estado) and
1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima,
Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico,
Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro,
Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system;
judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores)
and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Carlos SALINAS de
Gortari (since 1 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta; National Action
Party (PAN), Luis Alvarez; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio Sayago
Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Cuauhtemoc Cardenas;
Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael
Aguilar Talamantes; Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM),
Carlos Enrique Cantu Rosas

Suffrage: universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18

Elections:
President–last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1994);
results–Carlos Salinas de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%,
Cuauhtemoc Cardemas Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%,
Manuel Clouthier (PAN) 16.81%; others 1.39%; note–several of the smaller
parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National
Democratic Front (FDN)

Senate–last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September
1991); results–PRI 94%, FDN (now PRD) 6%;
seats–(64 total) number of seats by party NA;

Chamber of Deputies–last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September
1991);
results–PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%;
seats–(500 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church, Confederation
of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN),
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO), National Peasant
Confederation (CNC), National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP),
Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT), Mexican Democratic Party (PDM),
Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC), Regional
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM), Confederation of Employers of
the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX), National Chamber of Transformation
Industries (CANACINTRA), Business Coordination Council (CCE)

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO,
ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Whaling Commission, LAIA,
OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide;
Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 728-1600;
there are Mexican Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso,
Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Antonio,
San Diego, and Consulates in Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville
(Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit,
Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City
(Missouri), Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Miami, Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard
(California), Philadelphia, Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis,
St. Paul (Minneapolis), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Seattle;
US–Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la
Reforma 305, Mexico 5, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX
78044); telephone Õ52å (5) 211-0042; there are US Consulates General in
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana, and Consulates in
Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and Nuevo Laredo

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake is its beak) is
centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: Mexico’s economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial plants
(notably oil), private manufacturing and services, and both large-scale and
traditional agriculture. In the 1980s Mexico experienced severe economic
difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts as world
petroleum prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic
food supply; and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate
became more acute. Growth in national output dropped from 8% in
1980 to 1.1% in 1988 and 2.5% in 1989. The US is Mexico’s major
trading partner, accounting for two-thirds of its exports and
imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and tourism are the largest
earners of foreign exchange. The government, in consultation with international
economic agencies, is implementing programs to stabilize the economy
and foster growth.

GDP: $187.0 billion, per capita $2,165; real growth rate 2.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $36.1 billion; expenditures $56.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.7 biilion (1988)

Exports: $23.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–crude oil,
oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, cotton; partners–US 66%,
EC 16%, Japan 11%

Imports: $23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–grain,
metal manufactures, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment;
partners–US 62%, EC 18%, Japan 10%

External debt: $95.1 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.3% (1988)

Electricity: 26,900,000 kW capacity; 103,670 million kWh produced,
1,200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large
number of small farms at subsistence level; major food crops–corn,
wheat, rice, beans; cash crops–cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish
catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis
continues in spite of government eradication efforts; major link in
chain of countries used to smuggle cocaine from South American
dealers to US markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $3.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.8
billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $110 million

Currency: Mexican peso (plural–pesos);
1 Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1–2,660.3
(January 1990), 2,461.3 (1989), 2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987), 611.8 (1986),
256.9 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 20,680 km total; 19,950 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 730 km
0.914-meter narrow gauge

Highways: 210,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or
cobblestone, 60,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under construction,
55,000 km unimproved earth roads

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,381 km; refined products, 8,345 km; natural gas,
13,254 km

Ports: Acapulco, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo,
Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz

Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,041,229
GRT/1,552,478 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 2 refrigerated
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 4 bulk, 4 combination bulk

Civil air: 174 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1,785 total, 1,484 usable; 190 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 259 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed system with extensive radio relay
links; connection into Central American Microwave System; 6.41 million
telephones; stations–679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22 shortwave; 120 domestic
satellite terminals; satellite earth stations–4 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 21,575,525; 15,803,322 fit for military
service; 1,118,046 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (1987)
.pa
Micronesia, Federated States of
Geography
Total area: 702 km2; land area: 702 km2; includes Pohnpei, Truk, Yap,
and Kosrae

Comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern
islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe
damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low,
coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; four major
island groups totaling 607 islands

Note: located 5,150 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia

People
Population: 104,937 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Micronesian(s); adjective–Micronesian;
Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religion: predominantly Christian, divided between Roman Catholic and
Protestant; other churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah’s Witnesses,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Latter Day Saints, and the Baha’i Faith

Language: English is the official and common language; most indigenous
languages fall within the Austronesian language family, the exceptions are the
Polynesian languages; major indigenous languages are Trukese, Pohnpeian,
Yapese, and Kosrean

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory through eight grades

Labor force: NA; two-thirds are government employees; 45,000 people are
between the ages of 15 and 65

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Federated States of Micronesia (no short-form name)

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the
Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

Capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei); note–a new capital is being
built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship;
formerly the Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap districts of the Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia,
10 May (1979)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President John R. HAGLELGAM
(since 11 May 1987); Vice President Hiroshi H. ISMAEL (since 11 May 1987)

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results–John R. Haglelgam was elected;

House of Representatives–last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(NA total)

Communists: none

Member of: SPF, ESCAP (associate)

Diplomatic representation: Deputy Representative Jesse B. MAREHALAN;
Representative Office at 706 G Street SE, Washington DC 20003;
telephone (202) 544-2640;
US–Representative Michael G. WYGANT; US Office at address NA, Kolonia
(mailing address is P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia
96941); telephone 691-320-2187

Flag: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars
are arranged in a diamond pattern

Economy
Overview: Financial assistance from the US is the primary source
of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the 1990s.
Micronesia also earns about $4 million a year in fees from foreign commercial
fishing concerns. Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming
and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting,
except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry
exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate
facilities hinder development; note–GNP numbers reflect US spending.

GNP: $150 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 80%

Budget: revenues $110.8 million; expenditures NA, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.6 million (f.o.b., 1983); commodities–copra;
partners–NA

Imports: $48.9 million (c.i.f., 1983); commodities–NA;
partners–NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearl

Agriculture: mainly a subsistence economy; copra, black pepper; tropical
fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens

Aid: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will
provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: 39 km of paved macadam and concrete roads on major islands,
otherwise 187 km stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads

Ports: Colonia (Yap), Truk (Kosrae), Okat (Kosrae)

Airports: 11 total, 10 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439

Telecommunications: 16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987);
telephone network–960 telephone lines at both Kolonia and Truk; islands
interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government purposes);
stations–5 AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Midway Islands
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2; includes Eastern Island
and Sand Island

Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Natural resources: fish and wildlife

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: coral atoll

Note: located 2,350 km west-northwest of Honolulu at the western end of
Hawaiian Islands group, about one-third of the way between Honolulu and Tokyo;
closed to the public

People
Population: 453 US military personnel (1989)

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
under command of the Barbers Point Naval Air Station in Hawaii and managed
cooperatively by the US Navy and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: the US flag is used

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on providing support services for US naval
operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be
imported.

Communications
Highways: 32 km total

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports: Sand Island

Airports: 3 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Monaco
Geography
Total area: 1.9 km2; land area: 1.9 km2

Comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 4.4 km with France

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: almost entirely urban

Note: second-smallest independent state in world (after
Vatican City)

People
Population: 29,453 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 7 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjective–Monacan or
Monegasque

Ethnic divisions: 47% French, 16% Monegasque, 16% Italian, 21% other

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 4,000 members in 35 unions

Government
Long-form name: Principality of Monaco

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular–quartier);
Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419, rule by the House of Grimaldi

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Executive branch: prince, minister of state, Council of Government
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Council (Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State–Prince RAINIER III (since November 1949); Heir Apparent
Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958);

Head of Government Minister of State Jean AUSSEIL (since 10
September 1985)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union (UND),
Democratic Union Movement (MUD), Monaco Action, Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)

Suffrage: universal adult at age 25

Elections:
National Council–last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24
January 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(18 total) UND 18

Member of: IAEA, ICAO, IHO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU,
UN (permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation: Monaco maintains honorary consulates
general in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco, and honorary consulates in Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach,
Philadelphia, and Washington;
US–no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille,
France, is accredited to Monaco; Consul General R. Susan WOOD; Consulate
General at 12 Boulevard Paul Peytral, 13286 Marseille Cedex (mailing
address APO NY 09777); telephone Õ33å (91) 549-200

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the
flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top)
and red

Economy
Overview: No data are published on the economy. Monaco, situated
on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists
to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to
diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax
haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign
companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco’s annual
revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial
sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are
high, that is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French
metropolitan suburbs.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: full employment (1989)

Budget: revenues $386 million; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through
customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through
customs union with France

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW standby capacity (1988); power supplied by France

Industries: pharmaceuticals, food processing, precision instruments,
glassmaking, printing, tourism

Agriculture: NA

Aid: NA

Currency: French franc (plural–francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1–5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge

Highways: none; city streets

Ports: Monaco

Merchant marine: 1 tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways

Telecommunications: served by the French communications system; automatic
telephone system; 38,200 telephones; stations–3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV;
no communication satellite stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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Mongolia
Geography
Total area: 1,565,000 km2; land area: 1,565,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 8,114 km total; China 4,673 km, USSR 3,441 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Natural resources: coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin,
nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 79% meadows and
pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: harsh and rugged

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Soviet Union

People
Population: 2,187,275 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mongolian(s); adjective–Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other

Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited
religious activity because of Communist regime

Language: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages
include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

Literacy: 80% (est.); 100% claimed (1985)

Labor force: NA, but primarily agricultural; over half the adult
population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women;
shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: 425,000 members of the Central Council of Mongolian Trade
Unions (CCMTU) controlled by the government (1984)

Government
Long-form name: Mongolian People’s Republic; abbreviated MPR

Type: Communist state

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular–aymag) and
3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular–hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy,
Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*,
Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)

Constitution: 6 July 1960

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law;
no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: People’s Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Executive branch: chairman and deputy chairman of the Presidium of
the People’s Great Hural, Presidium of the People’s Great Hural, chairman
of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People’s Great Hural

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Chairman of the Presidium of the People’s Great
Hural Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 21 March 1990);

Head of Government–Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Sharabyn GUNGAADORJ (since 21 March 1990);

Political parties and leaders: only party–Mongolian People’s
Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Gombojabin Ochirbat, General Secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held July 1991);
results–Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat elected by the People’s Great Hural;

People’s Great Hural–last held on 22 June 1986 (next to be held
June 1990);
results–MPRP was the only party;
seats–(370 total) MPRP 370

Communists: MPRP membership 88,150 (1986 est.)

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, ILO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gendengiin NYAMDOO;
US–Ambassador Richard L. WILLIAMS

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red;
centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is a five-pointed star above the
national emblem (soyombo–a columnar arrangement of abstract and
geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang
symbol)

Economy
Overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on
agriculture and the breeding of livestock–Mongolia has the highest
number of livestock per person in the world. In recent years extensive
mineral resources have been developed with Soviet support. The mining and
processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold
account for a large part of industrial production.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $880 (1985 est.); average real
growth rate 3.6% (1976-85 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.19 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.9 billion (1987 est.)

Exports: $388 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities–livestock, animal
products, wool, hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals;
partners–nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities–machinery and
equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building
materials, sugar, tea;
partners–nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 10.9% (1985)

Electricity: 657,000 kW capacity; 29,500 million kWh produced,
1,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Agriculture: accounts for 90% of exports and provides livelihood for about
50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (sheep, goats, horses);
crops–wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Aid: about $500-$700 million annually from USSR

Currency: tughrik (plural–tughriks); 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1–3.355 (1986-1988),
3.600 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1986)

Highways: 46,700 km total; 1,000 km hard surface; 45,700 km other surfaces
(1986)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1986)

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 80 total, 30 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 20 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–13 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with 18 provincial
relays); relay of Soviet TV; 60,000 TV sets; 186,000 radio receivers;
at least 1 satellite earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Mongolian People’s Army, Air Force (negligible)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 518,482; 338,652 fit for military service;
24,783 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
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Montserrat
(dependent territory of the UK)
Geography
Total area: 100 km2; land area: 100 km2

Comparative area: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 20% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 10% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 30% other

Environment: subject to severe hurricanes from June to November

Note: located 400 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

People
Population: 12,467 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 4 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Montserratian(s); adjective–Montserratian

Ethnic divisions: mostly black with a few Europeans

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day
Adventist, other Christian denominations

Language: English

Literacy: 77%

Labor force: 5,100; 40.5% community, social, and personal services,
13.5% construction, 12.3% trade, restaurants, and hotels, 10.5% manufacturing,
8.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 14.4% other (1983 est.)

Organized labor: 30% of labor force, three trade unions with 1,500
members (1984 est.)

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Plymouth

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter

Independence: none (colony of the UK)

Constitution: 1 January 1960

Legal system: English common law and statute law

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Executive branch: monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet),
chief minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Christopher J. TURNER (since 1987);

Head of Government–Chief Minister John A. OSBORNE (since 1978)

Political parties and leaders: People’s Liberation Movement (PLM), John
Osborne; Progressive Democratic Party (PDP), Howell Bramble; United
National Front (UNF), Dr. George Irish; National Development Party (NDP),
Bertrand Osborne

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council–last held on 25 August 1987 (next to be
held NA 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(11 total, 7 elected) PLM 4, NDP 2, PDP 1

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (colony of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat
of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around
a black cross

Economy
Overview: The economy is small and open with economic activity centered
on tourism and construction. Tourism is the most important sector and
accounted for 20% of GDP in 1986. Agriculture accounted for about 4%
of GDP and industry 9%. The economy is heavily dependent on imports,
making it vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Exports consist
mainly of electronic parts sold to the US.

GDP: $45.4 million, per capita $3,780; real growth rate 12% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 3.0% (1987)

Budget: revenues $10.0 million; expenditures $9.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $3.2 million (1987)

Exports: $3.0 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities–plastic bags,
electronic parts, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle; partners–NA

Imports: $25.3 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities–machinery and
transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants,
and related materials; partners–NA

External debt: $3.7 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (1986)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism; light manufacturing–rum, textiles, electronic
appliances

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food
crops–tomatoes, onions, peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially
livestock products

Aid: NA

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural–dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1–2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 280 km total; about 200 km paved, 80 km gravel and earth

Ports: Plymouth

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,036 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations–8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
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Morocco
Geography
Total area: 446,550 km2; land area: 446,300 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 2,002 km total; Algeria 1,559 km, Western
Sahara 443 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is
unresolved; armed conflict in Western Sahara; Spain controls two coastal
presidios or places of sovereignty (Ceuta, Melilla)

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with rich coastal plains

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead,
zinc, fish, salt

Land use: 18% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 28% meadows and
pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 41% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; desertification

Note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

People
Population: 25,648,241 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 78 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Moroccan(s); adjective–Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: 99.1% Arab-Berber, 0.7% non-Moroccan, 0.2% Jewish

Religion: 98.7% Muslim, 1.1% Christian, 0.2% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is language
of business, government, diplomacy, and postprimary education

Literacy: 28%

Labor force: 7,400,000; 50% agriculture, 26% services, 15% industry,
9% other (1985)

Organized labor: about 5% of the labor force, mainly in the Union of
Moroccan Workers (UMT) and the Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT)

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Morocco

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 36 provinces (provinces, singular–province)
and 2 municipalities* (wilayas, singular–wilaya); Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal,
Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida,
El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane,
Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador,
Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan,
Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 10 March 1972

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme
Court

National holiday: National Day (anniversary of King Hassan II’s accession
to the throne), 3 March (1961)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Representatives (Majlis al
Nuwab)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Dr. Azzedine LARAKI (since
30 September 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Morocco has 15 political parties; the major
ones are Istiqlal Party, M’Hamed Boucetta; Socialist Union of Popular Forces
(USFP), Abderrahim Bouabid; Popular Movement (MP), Secretariat General;
National Assembly of Independents (RNI), Ahmed Osman; National Democratic Party
(PND), Mohamed Arsalane El-Jadidi; Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS),
Ali Yata; Constitutional Union (UC), Maati Bouabid

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
Chamber of Representatives–last held on 14 September 1984 (were
scheduled for September 1990, but postponed until NA 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(306 total, 206 elected) CU 83, RNI 61, MP 47, Istiqlal 41,
USFP 36, PND 24, others 14

Communists: about 2,000

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, CCC, EC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ali BENGELLOUN; Chancery at
1601 21st Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-7979;
there is a Moroccan Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Michael USSERY; Embassy at 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 120, Rabat, or APO New York 09284);
telephone Õ212å (7) 622-65; there are US Consulates General in Casablanca
and Tangier

Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as
Solomon’s seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of
Islam

Economy
Overview: After registering a robust 10% growth in 1988, the
economy slowed in 1989 because of higher prices for food and oil
imports, lower worker remittances, and a trade dispute with India over
phosphoric acid prices that cost Rabat $500 million. To meet the foreign
payments shortfall, Rabat has been drawing down foreign exchange reserves.
Servicing the $22 billion foreign debt, high unemployment, and Morocco’s
vulnerability to external forces remain severe problems for the 1990s.

GDP: $21.9 billion, per capita $880 (1988); real growth rate 4.5% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1988)

Budget: revenues $5.1 billion; expenditures $6.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1988)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–food and
beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17%;
partners–EC 58%, India 7%, Japan 5%, USSR 3%, US 2%

Imports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–capital
goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%,
food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 10%; partners–EC 53%, US 11%,
Canada 4%, Iraq 3%, USSR 3%, Japan 2%

External debt: $22.2 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,140,000 kW capacity; 7,760 million kWh produced,
300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Agriculture: 50% of employment and 30% of export value; not
self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising predominate;
barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; fishing catch
of 491,000 metric tons in 1987

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; trafficking on
the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of cannabis mostly directed to Western Europe; occasional transit point
for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.3 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.3 billion

Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural–dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1–8.093 (January 1990),
8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974
km electrified)

Highways: 59,198 km total; 27,740 km bituminous treated, 31,458 km gravel,
crushed stone, improved earth, and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (abandoned) refined products; 241 km
natural gas

Ports: Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador,
Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,931
GRT/513,762 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 2 container, 14 refrigerated cargo,
5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
12 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 3 short-sea passenger

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

Airports: 75 total, 68 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and radio
relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat, secondary centers are
Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones;
stations–14 AM, 6 FM, 47 TV; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations–2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and
Western Sahara; coaxial cable to Algeria; microwave network linking Syria,
Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air
Force, Royal Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,203,759; 3,946,408 fit for military
service; 293,893 reach military age (18) annually; limited conscription

Defense expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (1987)
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Mozambique
Geography
Total area: 801,590 km2; land area: 784,090 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,571 km total; Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km,
Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Natural resources: coal, titanium

Land use: 4% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 56% meadows and
pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: severe drought and floods occur in south; desertification

People
Population: 14,565,656 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Mozambican(s); adjective–Mozambican

Ethnic divisions: majority from indigenous tribal groups; about
10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, 15,000 Indians

Religion: 60% indigenous beliefs, 30% Christian, 10% Muslim

Language: Portuguese (official); many indigenous dialects

Literacy: 38%

Labor force: NA, but 90% engaged in agriculture

Organized labor: 225,000 workers belong to a single union,
the Mozambique Workers’ Organization (OTM)

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

Government
Long-form name: People’s Republic of Mozambique

Type: people’s republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias,
singular–provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula,
Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 25 June 1975

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral People’s Assembly (Assembleia Popular)

Judicial branch: People’s Courts at all levels

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6
November 1986);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since
17 July 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(FRELIMO) is the only legal party and is a Marxist organization with close ties
to the USSR

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections: national elections are indirect and based on mass meetings
throughout the country

Communists: about 60,000 FRELIMO members

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Valeriano FERRAO; Chancery at
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 293-7146;
US–Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 3rd Floor, 35 Rua Da Mesquita,
Maputo (mailing address is P. O. Box 783, Maputo); telephone 743167 or 744163

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with
a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in
white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed
rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

Economy
Overview: One of Africa’s poorest countries, with a per capita GDP of
little more than $100, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential
of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources.
Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the
first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government
administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign
aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, has resulted in successive years of
economic growth since 1985. Agricultural output, nevertheless, is only
at about 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry
operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on
foreign assistance to keep afloat.

GDP: $1.6 billion, per capita less than $110; real growth rate 5.0%
(1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.1% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 40.0 (1988)

Budget: revenues $186 million; expenditures $239 million,
including capital expenditures of $208 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $100 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–shrimp 48%,
cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%; partners–US, Western
Europe, GDR, Japan

Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1988), including aid;
commodities–food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum;
partners–US, Western Europe, USSR

External debt: $4.4 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,265,000 kW capacity; 1,740 million kWh produced,
120 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass,
asbestos), tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP, over 80% of labor force, and about
90% of exports; cash crops–cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other
crops–cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $282 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.1 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$887 million

Currency: metical (plural–meticais); 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1–800 (September 1989),
528.60 (1988), 289.44 (1987), 40.43 (1986), 43.18 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter
narrow gauge; Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are
subject to closure because of insurgency

Highways: 26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed stone,
stabilized soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: 306 km crude oil (not operating); 289 km refined products

Ports: Maputo, Beira, Nacala

Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806
GRT/12,873 DWT

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 203 total, 153 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 29 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and
radio relay; 57,400 telephones; stations–15 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Mozambique Armed Forces (including Army, Border Guard, Naval
Command, Air Defense Forces)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,295,067; 1,892,699 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 8.4% of GDP (1987)
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Namibia
Geography
Total area: 824,290 km2; land area: 823,290 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries: 3,935 km total; Angola 1,376 km, Botswana
1,360 km, South Africa 966 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,489 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite;
quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
possible future claim to South Africa’s Walvis Bay

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert
in east

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of coal
and iron ore

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 64% meadows and
pastures; 22% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: inhospitable with very limited natural water resources;
desertification

Note: Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

People
Population: 1,452,951 (July 1990), growth rate 5.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 20 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Namibian(s); adjective–Namibian

Ethnic divisions: 86% black, 6.5% white, 7.5% mixed; about 50%
of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% from the Kavangos
tribe

Religion: predominantly Christian

Language: Afrikaans principal language of about 60% of white population,
German of 33%, and English of 7% (all official); several indigenous languages

Literacy: 100% whites, 16% nonwhites

Labor force: 500,000; 60% agriculture, 19% industry and commerce,
8% services, 7% government, 6% mining (1981 est.)

Organized labor: 15 trade unions–largest is the mineworkers’
union which has a sizable black membership

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Namibia

Type: republic as of 21 March 1990

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 26 districts; Bethanien, Boesmanland,
Caprivi Oos, Damaraland, Gobabis, Grootfontein, Hereroland Oos,
Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg, Karibib, Kavango, Keetmanshoop,
Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland, Okahandja, Omaruru,
Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund, Tsumeb, Windhoek

Independence: 21 March 1990

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law

National holiday: Settlers’ Day, 10 December

Executive branch: president, Cabinet, Constitutional Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government President Sam NUJOMA
(since 21 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: South-West Africa People’s
Organization (SWAPO), Sam Nujoma;
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), Dirk Mudge;
United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus Garoeb;
Action Christian National (ACN), Kosie Pretorius;
National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses Katjiuongua;
Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans Diergaardt;
Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii Rukoro

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 7-11 November 1989
(next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1

Communists: no Communist party

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: FAO, IAEA, ILO, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: NA

Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the
upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower
right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe which is
contrasted by two narrow white edge borders

Economy
Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry
to extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 35%
of GDP, agriculture and fisheries 10-15%, and manufacturing about 5%.
Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and
the world’s fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond deposits are
among the richest in the world, making Namibia a primary source for
gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin,
silver, and tungsten, and it has substantial resources of coal.

GNP: $1.54 billion, per capita $1,245; real growth rate 2.9%
(1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.1% (1989)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1988)

Budget: revenues $781 million; expenditures $932 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)

Exports: $935 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–diamonds,
uranium, zinc, copper, meat, processed fish, karakul skins;
partners–South Africa

Imports: $856 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–foodstuffs,
manufactured consumer goods, machinery and equipment;
partners–South Africa, FRG, UK, US

External debt: about $27 million at independence; under a 1971
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling, Namibia may not be
liable for debt incurred during its colonial period

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 486,000 kW capacity; 1,280 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper,
lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing); mostly
subsistence farming; livestock raising major source of cash income;
crops–millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch potential of over 1 million
metric tons not being fulfilled, 1987 catch reaching only 520,000 metric
tons; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $47.2 million

Currency: South African rand (plural–rand);
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1–2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km earth
roads and tracks

Ports: Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South Africa)

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 143 total, 123 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects
major towns, wires extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones;
stations–2 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: males 15-49, 298,249; 176,660 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 4.9% of GNP (1986)

Note: the South-West Africa Territorial Force, established in
1980, was demobilized in June 1989; a new national defense force will
probably be formed by the new government
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Nauru
Geography
Total area: 21 km2; land area: 21 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: only 53 km south of Equator

Note: one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific
(others are Banaba or Ocean Island in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia)

People
Population: 9,202 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Nauruan(s); adjective–Nauruan

Ethnic divisions: 58% Nauruan, 26% other Pacific Islander, 8% Chinese, 8%
European

Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language (official); English
widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Nauru

Type: republic

Capital: no capital city as such; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia,
New Zealand, and UK); formerly Pleasant Island

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: own Acts of Parliament and British common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Bernard DOWIYOGO
(since 12 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Elections:
President–last held 9 December 1989 (next to be held December
1992);
results–Bernard Dowiyogo elected by Parliament;

Parliament–last held on 9 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1992);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(18 total) independents 18

Member of: Commonwealth (special member), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL,
ITU, SPC, SPF, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador T. W. STAR resides in Melbourne
(Australia); there is a Nauruan Consulate in Agana (Guam);
US–the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru

Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and
a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the
star indicates the country’s location in relation to the Equator (the
yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of
Nauru

Economy
Overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves
of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given
Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third
World–$10,000 annually. Few other resources exist so
most necessities must be imported, including fresh water from
Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income
from phosphates constitute serious long-term problems. Substantial
investment in trust funds, out of phosphate income, will help cushion the
transition.

GNP: over $90 million, per capita $10,000; real growth rate NA% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)

Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities–phosphates;
partners–Australia, NZ

Imports: $73 million (c.i.f., 1984); commodities–food, fuel,
manufactures, building materials, machinery; partners–Australia, UK, NZ,
Japan

External debt: $33.3 million

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 13,250 kW capacity; 48 million kWh produced,
5,300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconuts

Agriculture: negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for food
and water

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1–1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island
to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth

Ports: Nauru

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,597
GRT/50,729 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 1 cargo, 2 bulk

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on order

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate intraisland and international radio
communications provided via Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones;
4,000 radio receivers; stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: no regular armed forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 298,249; 176,660 fit for military
service; 100 reach age 18 annually

Defense expenditures: no formal defense structure
.pa
Navassa Island
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2

Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Haiti

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by
vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

Natural resources: guano

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 10% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 90% other

Environment: mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat
herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

Note: strategic location between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica in the
Caribbean Sea; 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

People
Population: uninhabited; transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on
the island

Government
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast
Guard

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
.pa
Nepal
Geography
Total area: 140,800 km2; land area: 136,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: 2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winter in south

Terrain: Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill
region, rugged Himalayas in north

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic
beauty; small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use: 17% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 13% meadows and
pastures; 33% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: contains eight of world’s 10 highest peaks;
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India

People
Population: 19,145,800 (July 1990), growth rate 2.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 99 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Nepalese (sing. and pl.); adjective–Nepalese

Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups

Religion: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu (about 88% of population) and Buddhist groups;
small groups of Muslims and Christians

Language: Nepali (official); 20 languages divided into numerous dialects

Literacy: 20%

Labor force: 4,100,000; 93% agriculture, 5% services, 2% industry;
severe lack of skilled labor

Organized labor: Teachers’ Union, not officially recognized

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Nepal

Type: constitutional monarchy, but King Birendra exercises
control over multitiered system of government

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali,
Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani,
Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah

Constitution: 16 December 1962

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Council of State, Council
of State, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Rashtriya Panchayat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Leaders:
Chief of State–King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January
1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Marich Man Singh SHRESTHA (since
15 July 1986)

Political parties and leaders: all political parties outlawed but operate
more or less openly; Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Ganesh Man Singh, K. P.
Bhattarai, G. P. Koirala

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 12 May 1986 (next to be held May 1991);
results–all independents since political parties are officially banned;
seats–(140 total, 112 elected) independents 112

Communists: Communist Party of Nepal (CPN); factions include V. B.
Manandhar, Man Mohan Adhikari/Sahana Pradhan, Bharat Raj Joshi, Rai Majhi,
Tulsi Lal, Krishna Raj Burma

Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning student
groups in the capital; Indian merchants in Tarai and capital; several small,
radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups operating from north India

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohan Man SAINJU; Chancery at 2131
Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-4550; there is a
Nepalese Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu;
telephone Õ977å 411179 or 412718, 411601

Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping
right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the
larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

Economy
Overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the
world with a per capita income of only $158. Real growth averaged 4% in the
1980s until FY89, when it plunged to 1.5% because of the ongoing
trade/transit dispute with India. Agriculture is the mainstay of the
economy, providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and
accounting for 60% of GDP and about 75% of exports. Industrial activity is
limited, and what there is involves the processing of agricultural
produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain).
Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable natural
resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Despite considerable investment in
the agricultural sector, production in the 1980s has not kept pace with the
population growth of 2.7%, which has led to a reduction in exportable surpluses
and balance-of-payments difficulties. Economic prospects for the 1990s
remain grim.

GDP: $2.9 billion, per capita $158; real growth rate 1.5% (FY89)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)

Budget: revenues $296 million; expenditures $635 million, including
capital expenditures of $394 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $374 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.), but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India; commodities–clothing, carpets,
leather goods, grain; partners–India 38%, US 23%, UK 6%, other
Europe 9% (FY88)

Imports: $724 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.); commodities–petroleum
products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%; partners–India 36%,
Japan 13%, Europe 4%, US 1% (FY88)

External debt: $1.3 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 4.5% (FY89 est.)

Electricity: 205,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette,
textiles, cement, brick; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm
products–rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not
self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $285 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $1.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $273
million

Currency: Nepalese rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1–28.559 (January 1990),
27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988), 21.819 (1987), 21.230 (1986), 18.246 (1985)

Fiscal year: 16 July-15 July

Communications
Railroads: 52 km (1985), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Tarai close
to Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned

Highways: 5,958 km total (1986); 2,645 km paved, 815 km gravel or crushed
stone, 2,257 km improved and unimproved earth; also 241 km of seasonally
motorable tracks

Civil air: 5 major and 11 minor transport aircraft

Airports: 38 total, 38 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio
communication and broadcast service; international radio communication service
is poor; 30,000 telephones (1987); stations–4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese
Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,531,660; 2,347,412 fit for military
service; 225,349 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $58 million (1989 est.)
.pa
Netherlands
Geography
Total area: 37,290 km2; land area: 33,940 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,027 km total; Belgium 450 km, FRG 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, fertile soil

Land use: 25% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 34% meadows and
pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 15% irrigated

Environment: 27% of the land area is below sea level and protected from
the North Sea by dikes

Note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine,
Maas or Meuse, Schelde)

People
Population: 14,936,032 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women); adjective–Dutch

Ethnic divisions: 96% Dutch, 4% Moroccans, Turks, and others (1988)

Religion: 36% Roman Catholic, 27% Protestant, 4% other, 33%
unaffiliated (1986)

Language: Dutch

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 5,300,000; 50.1% services, 28.2% manufacturing and
construction, 15.9% government, 5.8% agriculture (1986)

Organized labor: 29% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of the Netherlands

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam, but government resides at The Hague

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien,
singular–provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen,
Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland,
Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

Constitution: 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather
than Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Queen’s Day, 30 April (1938)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet,
Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral States General (Staten Generaal) consists of
an upper chamber or First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and a lower chamber or Second
Chamber (Tweede Kamer)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980);
Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born
27 April 1967);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Ruud (Rudolph) F. M. LUBBERS (since
4 November 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 2 November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Willem
van Velzen; Labor (PvdA), Wim Kok; Liberal (VVD), Joris Voorhoeve; Democrats ’66
(D’66), Hans van Mierio; Communist (CPN), Henk Hoekstra; a host of minor parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
First Chamber–last held on 9 June l987 (next to be held 9 June 1991);
results–elected by the country’s 12 provincial councils;
seats–(75 total) percent of seats by party NA;

Second Chamber–last held on 6 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results–CDA 35.3%, PvdA 31.9%, VVD 14.6%, D’66 7.9%, others 10.3%;
seats–(150 total) CDA 54, PvdA 49, VVD 22, D’66 12, others 13

Communists: about 6,000

Other political or pressure groups: large multinational firms; Federation
of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade
unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant
Employers Associations; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands
Enterprises; and IKV–Interchurch Peace Council

Member of: ADB, Benelux, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE, EIB,
EMS, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council
(with respect to interests of the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname), NATO, OAS
(observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO,

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard H. FEIN; Chancery at
4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-5300;
there are Dutch Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador C. Howard WILKINS; Embassy at Lange Voorhout 102,
2514 EJ The Hague (mailing address APO New York 09159);
telephone Õ31å (70) 62-49-11; there is a US Consulate General in Amsterdam

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar
to the flag of Luxembourg which uses a lighter blue and is longer

Economy
Overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based on
private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however,
through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs
affecting most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial
services sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity,
including construction, provides about 25% of GDP, and is led by the
food-processing, oil-refining, and metal-working industries. The highly
mechanized agricultural sector employs only 6% of the
labor force, but provides large surpluses for export and the domestic
food-processing industry. An unemployment rate of over 8.6% and a sizable
budget deficit are currently the most serious economic problems.

GDP: $205.9 billion, per capita $13,900; real growth rate 4.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $71 billion; expenditures $82 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (1989)

Exports: $110.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–agricultural
products, processed foods and tobacco, natural gas, chemicals, metal products,
textiles, clothing; partners–EC 74.9% (FRG 28.3%, Belgium-Luxembourg
14.2%, France 10.7%, UK 10.2%), US 4.7% (1988)

Imports: $100.9 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–raw materials
and semifinished products, consumer goods, transportation equipment, crude oil,
food products; partners–EC 63.8% (FRG 26.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 23.1%,
UK 8.1%), US 7.9% (1988)

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 22,216,000 kW capacity; 63,570 million kWh
produced, 4,300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; animal production predominates;
crops–grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain,
fats, and oils

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $15.8 billion

Currency: Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (plural–guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per
US$1–2.2906 (January 1990), 2.1207 (1989), 1.9766 (1988), 2.0257 (1987),
2.4500 (1986), 3.3214 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,037 km track (includes 1,871 km electrified and
1,800 km double track; 2,871 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by
Netherlands Railways (NS); 166 km privately owned

Highways: 108,360 km total; 92,525 km paved (including 2,185 km of limited
access, divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, crushed stone

Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of
1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: 418 km crude oil; 965 km refined products; 10,230 km natural
gas

Ports: maritime–Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht,
Eemshaven, Ijmuiden, Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen;
inland–29 ports

Merchant marine: 345 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,661,822
GRT/3,732,282 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 187 cargo, 42 refrigerated
cargo, 23 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 livestock carrier,
12 multifunction large-load carrier, 15 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 1 combinatio
n ore/oil, 9 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note–many Dutch-owned ships are also
registered in the captive Netherlands Antilles register

Civil air: 98 major transport aircraft

Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed, well maintained, and integrated;
extensive system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by radio relay links;
9,418,000 telephones; stations–6 AM, 20 (32 repeaters) FM, 21 (8 repeaters) TV;
5 submarine cables;
communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and
2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy/Marine Corps,
Royal Netherlands Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,134,006; 3,660,048 fit for military
service; 111,948 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GDP, or $6.0 billion (1989 est.)
.pa
Netherlands Antilles
(part of the Dutch realm)
Geography
Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2; includes Bonaire,
Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the
island of Saint Martin)

Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use: 8% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 92% other

Environment: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are
subject to hurricanes from July to October

Note: consists of two island groups–Curacao and Bonaire
are located off the coast of Venezuela, and Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint
Eustatius lie 800 km to the north

People
Population: 183,503 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Netherlands Antillean(s); adjective–Netherlands
Antillean

Ethnic divisions: 85% mixed African; remainder Carib Indian, European,
Latin, and Oriental

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; Protestant, Jewish,
Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Dutch (official); Papiamento, a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English
dialect predominates; English widely spoken; Spanish

Literacy: 95%

Labor force: 89,000; 65% government, 28% industry and commerce
(1983)

Organized labor: 60-70% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: part of the Dutch realm–full autonomy in internal affairs
granted in 1954

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands,
as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common
law influence

National holiday: Queen’s Day, 30 April (1938)

Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, vice prime
minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Parliament (Staten)

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980),
represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since October 1989);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS (since 17 May
1988, previously served from September 1984 to November 1985)

Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to each
island:

Curacao–National People’s Party (NVP), Maria
Liberia-Peters; New Antilles Movement (MAN), Domenico Felip Martina;
Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustus Diaz; Workers’ Liberation
Front (FOL), Wilson (Papa) Godett; Socialist Independent (SI), George
Hueck and Nelson Monte;

Bonaire–New Force, Rudy Ellis; Democratic Party of Bonaire (PDB),
John Evert (Jopie) Abraham;

Sint Maarten–Democratic Party of Sint Maarten, Claude Wathey;
Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten, Romeo Paplophlet;

Sint Eustatius–Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius, Albert
K. Van Putten; Windward Islands People’s Movement (WIPM), Eric Henriquez;

Saba–Windward Islands People’s Movement (WIPM Saba), Will
Johnston; Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon Hassell; Saba Unity
Party, Carmen Simmonds

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament–last held on 22 November 1985 (next to be held
November 1989); results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(22 total) PNP 6, MAN 4, DP-Curacao 3, DP-St. Maarten 3,
DP-Bonaire 2, DP-St. Eustatius 1, FOL 1, UPB 1, WIPM 1; note–the
government of Prime Minister Maria Liberia-Peters is a coalition of
several parties

Communists: small leftist groups

Member of: EC (associate), INTERPOL; associated with UN through the
Netherlands; UPU, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as an autonomous part of the Netherlands,
Netherlands Antillean interests in the US are represented by the Netherlands;
US–Consul General Sharon P. WILKINSON; Consulate General at
St. Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao (mailing address P. O. Box 158,
Willemstad, Curacao); telephone Õ599å (9) 613066

Flag: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed
on a vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are
arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars
represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint
Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

Economy
Overview: Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the
mainstays of the economy. The islands enjoy a comparatively high per
capita income and a well-developed infrastructure compared with other
countries in the region. Unlike many Latin American countries, the
Netherlands Antilles has avoided large international debt. Almost all
consumer and capital goods are imported, with the US being the major
supplier. The economy has suffered somewhat in recent years because
of the depressed state of the world oil market and declining tax revenues.
In 1983 the drop in oil prices led to the devaluation of the Venezuelan
bolivar, which ended a substantial flow of Venezuelan tourists to the
islands. As a result of a decline in tax revenues, the government has
been seeking financial support from the Netherlands.

GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $5,500; real growth rate 3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 26.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $180 million; expenditures $289 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities–petroleum
products 98%; partners–US 55%, UK 7%, Jamaica 5%

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–crude petroleum
64%, food, manufactures; partners–Venezuela 52%, Nigeria 15%, US 12%

External debt: $701.2 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 125,000 kW capacity; 365 million kWh produced,
1,990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining
(Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire),
light manufacturing (Curacao)

Agriculture: hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief
products–aloes, sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not
self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-79), $353 million

Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin
(plural–guilders, gulden, or florins);
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1–1.80 (fixed rate since 1971)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 km gravel and earth

Ports: Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk

Merchant marine: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 418,206
GRT/414,325 DWT; includes 4 passenger, 19 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo,
7 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 multifunction large-load carrier,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note–all but a few are foreign owned

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland
radio relay links; stations–9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Military Manpower: males 15-49 49,299; 27,888 fit for military service;
1,678 reach military age (20) annually

Note: defense is responsibility of the Netherlands
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New Caledonia
(overseas territory of France)
Geography
Total area: 19,060 km2; land area: 18,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold,
lead, copper

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 14% meadows and
pastures; 51% forest and woodland; 35% other

Environment: typhoons most frequent from November to March

Note: located 1,750 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean

People
Population: 153,215 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–New Caledonian(s); adjective–New Caledonian

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3.0%

Religion: over 60% Roman Catholic, 30% Protestant, 10% other

Language: French; Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Labor force: 50,469; foreign workers for plantations and mines from
Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note–a
referendum on independence will be held in 1998, with a review of the
issue in 1992

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy
to the islands; formerly under French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: high commissioner, Consultative Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government High Commissioner and President of the Council
of Government Bernard GRASSET (since 15 July 1988)

Political parties: white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie
dans la Republique (RPCR), conservative; Melanesian proindependence Kanak
Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS); Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist
Liberation (LKS); National Front (FN), extreme right; Caledonian
Separatist Front, extreme left

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Territorial Congress–last held NA June 1989 (next to be held NA
1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, others 5;

French Senate–last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) RPCR 1;

French National Assembly–last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(2 total) RPCR 2

Communists: number unknown; Palita extreme left party; some politically
active Communists deported during 1950s; small number of North Vietnamese

Member of: EIB (associate), WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
New Caledonian interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

Economy
Overview: New Caledonia has more than 40% of the world’s known nickel
resources. In recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed
international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings.
Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food
accounts for about 25% of imports.

GNP: $860 million, per capita $5,810; real growth rate 2.4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (1983)

Budget: revenues $110.5 million; expenditures $110.5 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1981)

Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities–nickel metal
87%, nickel ore; partners–France 56.3%, Japan

Imports: $180 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities–foods, fuels,
minerals, machines, electrical equipment; partners–France 50.3%,
Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced,
14,440 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: nickel mining

Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn,
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $3.6 billion

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural–francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF)
per US$1–104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987),
125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note–linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French
franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 5,448 km total; 558 km paved, 2,251 km improved earth,
2,639 km unimproved earth

Ports: Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 32,578 telephones (1987); stations–5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
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New Zealand
Geography
Total area: 268,680 km2; land area: 268,670 km2; includes
Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island,
Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Comparative area: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 53% meadows and
pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

People
Population: 3,295,866 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–New Zealander(s); adjective–New Zealand

Ethnic divisions: 88% European, 8.9% Maori, 2.9% Pacific Islander,
0.2% other

Religion: 81% Christian, 18% none or unspecified, 1% Hindu, Confucian, and
other

Language: English (official), Maori

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,591,900; 67.4% services, 19.8% manufacturing, 9.3% primary
production (1987)

Organized labor: 681,000 members; 43% of labor force (1986)

Government
Long-form name: none; abbreviated NZ

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and
3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna,
Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke’s Bay, Heathcote,
Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood,
Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu,
Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri,
Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan,
Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate,
Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa,
Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has
not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land
courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly called
Parliament)

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II ( since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General The Most Rev. Sir Paul REEVES (since 20 November 1985);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Geoffrey PALMER (since 8 August
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 8 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP; government),
Geoffrey Palmer; National Party (NP; opposition), Jim Bolger; Democratic Party,
Neil Morrison; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Ken Douglas

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held on 15 August 1987 (next to be
held by August 1990);
results–LP 47%, NP 45%, DP 6%;
seats–(97 total) LP 58, NP 39

Communists: SUP about 140, other groups, about 200

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth,
DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO,
WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Harold Huyton FRANCIS; Chancery at
37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-4800;
there are New Zealand Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US–Ambassador Della NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace,
Thorndon, Wellington (mailing address is Private Bag, Wellington, or
FPO San Francisco 96690-0001); telephone Õ64å (4) 722-068; there is a US
Consulate General in Auckland

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the
flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

Economy
Overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an
agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open
free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government
has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce
inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The
results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels
but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive
issue, has been at a record high 7.4%. In 1988 GDP fell by 1% and in
1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%.

GDP: $39.1 billion, per capita $11,600; real growth rate 2.4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $18.6 billion; expenditures $19.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities–wool, lamb,
mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures, chemicals, foresty products;
partners–EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%, China 3.6%,
South Korea 3.1%

Imports: $7.5 billion (c.i.f., FY89); commodities–petroleum,
consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment;
partners–Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%,
Taiwan 3.0%

External debt: $17.0 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate – 1.6% (FY88)

Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 27,600 million kWh produced,
8,190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GNP and 10% of the
work force; livestock predominates–wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops–wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and
vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a
record 431,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $448 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural–dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1–1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986),
2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Railroads: 4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track;
113 km electrified; over 99% government owned

Highways: 92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or
crushed stone

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: 1,000 km natural gas; 160 km refined products; 150 km
condensate

Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 190,553 GRT/257,782
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 2 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier,
4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft

Airports: 157 total, 157 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international and domestic systems;
2,110,000 telephones; stations 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend
to Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal New Zealand Navy, New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand
Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 872,336; 740,207 fit for military service;
29,532 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP, or $820 million (1989 est.)
.pa
Nicaragua
Geography
Total area: 129,494 km2; land area: 120,254 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

Land boundaries: 1,231 km total; Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain);

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de
San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use: 9% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 43% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 12% other; including 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes,
landslides, and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution

People
Population: 3,722,683 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 40 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 62 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Nicaraguan(s); adjective–Nicaraguan

Ethnic divisions: 69% mestizo, 17% white, 9% black, 5% Indian

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); English- and Indian-speaking minorities on
Atlantic coast

Literacy: 88% (1981)

Labor force: 1,086,000; 43% service, 44% agriculture, 13% industry (1986)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Nicaragua

Type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 9 administrative regions encompassing 17
departments (departamentos, singular–departamento); North, Atlantic Coast,
South, Atlantic Coast, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia,
Rio San Juan, Rivas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) and municipal courts

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President-Elect Violeta
Barios de CHAMORRO (since 25 February 1990; takes office 25 April 1990);
Vice President-elect Virgilio GODOY (since 25 February 1990; takes office
25 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders:

Ruling coalition: National Opposition Union (UNO)–14 party
alliance: National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano Matamoros;
Conservative Popular Alliance Party (PAPC), Miriam Arguello;
National Conservative Action Party (PANC), Hernaldo Zuniga;
National Democratic Confidence Party (PDCN), Augustin Jarquin;
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Virgilio Godoy;
Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Andres Zuniga;
Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto Somarriba;
National Action Party (PAN), Eduardo Rivas;
Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo Tablada;
Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli Altimirano;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Luis Humberto;
Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto Urroz;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo Potoy;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), Alejandro Perez;

Opposition parties: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),
Daniel Ortega;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca Rojas;
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose Brenes;
Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo Coronado;
Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco Samper;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick Ramirez;
Revolutionary Workers’ Party (PRT), Bonifacio Miranda;
Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando Aguerro;
Popular Action Movement–Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro Tellez;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio Diaz

Suffrage: universal at age 16

Elections:
President–last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February
1996);
results–Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel Ortega Saavedra
(FSLN) 40.8%, others 4.5%;

National Constituent Assembly–last held on 25 February 1990
(next to be held February 1996);
results–UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%;
seats–(92 total) UNO 51, FSLN 39, PSC 1, MUR 1

Communists: FSLN–35,000; other Communists–15,000-20,000

Other political or pressure groups: Permanent Congress of Workers
(CPT), Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS), Autonomous Nicaraguan
Workers’ Central (CTN-A), Independent General Confederation of Workers
(CTG-I), Communist Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS), Nicaraguan
Workers’ Central (CST); Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is
an umbrella group of 11 different business groups, including the Chamber of
Commerce, the Chamber of Industry, and the Nicaraguan Development Institute
(INDE)

Member of: CACM, CEMA (observer), FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN,
UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Charge d’Affaires Leonor Arguello de HUPER;
Chancery at 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 387-4371 or 4372;
US–Charge d’Affaires John P. LEONARD; Embassy at Kilometer 4.5
Carretera Sur, Managua (mailing address is APO Miami 34021); telephone Õ505å
(2) 66010 or 66013, 66015 through 66018, 66026, 66027, 66032 through 66034;
note–Nicaragua expelled the US Ambassador on 11 July 1988, and the US expelled
the Nicaraguan Ambassador on 12 July 1988

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a
triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA
AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in
the white band

Economy
Overview: Government control of the economy historically has been
extensive, although the new government has pledged to reduce it.
The financial system is directly controlled by the state, which also
regulates wholesale purchasing, production, sales, foreign trade, and
distribution of most goods. Over 50% of the agricultural and industrial
firms are state owned. Sandinista economic policies and the war have
produced a severe economic crisis. The foundation of the economy
continues to be the export of agricultural commodities, largely coffee
and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7% in 1989, the fifth
successive year of decline. The agricultural sector employs 44%
of the work force and accounts for 23% of GDP and 86% of export earnings.
Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and contributes 26% to GDP,
showed a sharp drop of – 23% in 1988 and remains below pre-1979 levels.
External debt is one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis.
In 1989 the annual inflation rate was 1,700%, down from a record
16,000% in 1988. Shortages of basic consumer goods are widespread.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate – 5.0% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,700% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $0.9 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.15 billion (1987)

Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–coffee,
cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat, chemicals; partners–CEMA 15%,
OECD 75%, others 10%

Imports: $550 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities–petroleum,
food, chemicals, machinery, clothing; partners–CEMA 55%, EC 20%,
Latin America 10%, others 10%

External debt: $8 billion (year end 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate – 23% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 1,340 million kWh produced,
380 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash
crops–coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops–rice, corn,
cassava, citrus fruit, beans; variety of animal products–beef, veal,
pork, poultry, dairy; while normally self-sufficient in food, war-induced
shortages now exist

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-82), $290 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $981 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $3.3 billion

Currency: cordoba (plural–cordobas); 1 cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: cordobas (C$) per US$1–65,000 (February 1990)
is the free market rate; official rate is 46,000 (February 1990),
270 (1988), 0.103 (1987), 0.097 (1986), 0.039 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 373 km 1.067-meter gauge, government owned; majority of system
not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not connect
with mainline)

Highways: 25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved (includes all 2,170 km
gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km earth or graded earth, 14,335 km
unimproved, 368.5 km of the Pan-American highway)

Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km

Ports: Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161
GRT/2,500 DWT

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Airports: 261 total, 169 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: low-capacity radio relay and wire system being
expanded; connection into Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones;
stations–45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; satellite earth stations–1
Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Defense Forces
Branches: Sandinista Popular Army, Sandinista Navy, Sandinista Air
Force/Air Defense, Sandinista People’s Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 747,144; 459,333 fit for military service;
44,213 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Niger
Geography
Total area: 1,267,000 km2; land area: 1,266,700 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 5,697 km total; Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km,
Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger; exact locations
of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have
not been determined, so the boundary has not been demarcated and border
incidents have resulted; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to
rolling plains in south; hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates

Land use: 3% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and
pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 88% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurrent drought and desertification severely affecting
marginal agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

People
Population: 7,969,309 (July 1990), growth rate 3.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 131 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 53 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Nigerien(s) adjective–Nigerien

Ethnic divisions: 56% Hausa; 22% Djerma; 8.5% Fula; 8% Tuareg; 4.3% Beri
Beri (Kanouri); 1.2% Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche; about 4,000 French
expatriates

Religion: 80% Muslim, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Language: French (official); Hausa, Djerma

Literacy: 13.9%

Labor force: 2,500,000 wage earners (1982); 90% agriculture, 6% industry
and commerce, 4% government; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: negligible

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Niger

Type: republic; presidential system in which military officers
hold key offices

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements,
singular–departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: adopted NA December 1989 after 15 years of
military rule

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holidays: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Development Council

Judicial branch: State Court (Cour d’Etat), Court of Appeal
(Cour d’Apel)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Brig. Gen. Ali SAIBOU (since 14 November 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister ALIOU MAHAMIDA (since 2 March
1990)

Political parties and leaders: only party–National Movement
for the Development Society (MNSD), leader NA

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections:
President–last held December 1989 (next to be held NA 1996);
results–President Ali Saibou was reelected without opposition;

National Development Council–last held December 1989 (next to be
held NA 1994); results–MNSD is the only party;
seats–(150 total) MNSD 150 (indirectly elected)

Communists: no Communist party; some sympathizers in outlawed Sawaba party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente,
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, Lake Chad Basin
Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE;
Chancery at 2204 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4224
through 4227; US–Ambassador Carl C. CUNDIFF; Embassy at Avenue des
Ambassadeurs, Niamey (mailing address is B. P. 11201, Niamey); telephone
Õ227å 72-26-61 through 64 and 72-26-70

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with
a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar
to the flag of India which has a blue, spoked wheel centered in the white band

Economy

Overview: About 90% of the population is engaged in farming and
stock rearing, activities which generate almost half of the national income.
The economy also depends heavily on exploitation of large uranium deposits.
Uranium production grew rapidly in the mid-1970s, but tapered off in the
early 1980s, when world prices declined. France is a major customer,
while FRG, Japan, and Spain also make regular purchases. The depressed
demand for uranium has contributed to an overall sluggishness in the
economy, a severe trade imbalance, and a mounting external debt.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $330; real growth rate 7.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): – 1.4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $254 million; expenditures $510 million, including
capital expenditures of $239 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $371 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities–uranium 76%,
livestock, cowpeas, onions, hides, skins; partners–NA

Imports: $441 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities–petroleum
products, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, electronic
equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemical products, cereals, foodstuffs

External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 102,000 kW capacity; 225 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cement, brick, rice mills, small cotton gins, oilseed presses,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium production
began in 1971

Agriculture: accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash
crops–cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops–millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock–cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in drought years

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $349 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$61 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural–francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1–287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: 39,970 km total; 3,170 km bituminous, 10,330 km gravel
and laterite, 3,470 km earthen, 23,000 km tracks

Inland waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on
the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 31 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio
relay links concentrated in southwestern area; 11,900 telephones; stations–15
AM, 5 FM, 16 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT, and 4 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary
Republican Guard, paramilitary Presidential Guard, paramilitary National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,656,466; 894,095 fit for military
service; 87,478 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $20.6 million (1988)
.pa
Nigeria
Geography
Total area: 923,770 km2; land area: 910,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,047 km total; Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km,
Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

Disputes: exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and
Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined, so the
boundary has not been demarcated and border incidents have resulted; Nigerian
proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and redemarcate the entire
land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

Climate: varies–equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use: 31% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 23% meadows and
pastures; 15% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid deforestation

People
Population: 118,819,377 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Nigerian(s); adjective–Nigerian

Ethnic divisions: more than 250 tribal groups; Hausa and Fulani of the
north, Yoruba of the southwest, and Ibos of the southeast make up 65% of the
population; about 27,000 non-Africans

Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and several
other languages also widely used

Literacy: 42.4%

Labor force: 42,844,000; 54% agriculture, 19% industry, commerce,
and services, 15% government; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 3,520,000 wage earners belong to 42 recognized trade
unions, which come under a single national labor federation–the Nigerian
Labor Congress (NLC)

Government
Long-form name: Federal Republic of Nigeria

Type: military government since 31 December 1983

Capital: Lagos

Administrative divisions: 21 states and 1 territory*;
Abuja Capital Territory*, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bendel, Benue, Borno,
Cross River, Gongola, Imo, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun,
Ondo, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

Constitution: 1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic, and tribal law

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Executive branch: president of the Armed Forces Ruling Council,
Armed Forces Ruling Council, National Council of State, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Assembly was dissolved after the military
coup of 31 December 1983

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President and Commander in
Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA (since 27 August 1985)

Political parties and leaders: two political parties established by
the government in 1989–Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National
Republican Convention (NRC)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President–scheduled for 1 October 1992

Communists: the pro-Communist underground consists of a small fraction of
the Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in the country’s central
labor organization but have little influence on government

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC–International Wheat
Council, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU,
OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamzat AHMADU; Chancery at
2201 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 822-1500;
there are Nigerian Consulates General in Atlanta, New York and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Lannon WALKER; Embassy at 2 Eleke Crescent,
Victoria Island, Lagos (mailing address is P. O. Box 554, Lagos);
telephone Õ234å (1) 610097; there is a US Consulate General in Kaduna

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

Economy
Overview: In 1989, despite rising oil prices, the economic
performance failed to meet government expectations because of higher
inflationary pressures fueled by a relatively poor agricultural
performance. Agricultural production was up only 4% following a 10%
decline in 1988, and manufacturing remained below the 1985 level
with only a 6% increase. The government is continuing an economic
adjustment program to reduce Nigeria’s dependence on oil and to help
create a basis for sustainable noninflationary growth.

GNP: $30.0 billion, per capita $270; real growth rate 4% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 47.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.5 billion; expenditures $7.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.9 billion (1988 est.)

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–oil 95%,
cocoa, palm kernels, rubber; partners–EC 51%, US 32%

Imports: $5.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities–consumer
goods,
capital equipment, chemicals, raw materials; partners–EC, US

External debt: $32 billion, medium and long-term (December 1989
est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 4,737,000 kW capacity; 11,270 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining–crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, columbite;
primary processing industries–palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, petroleum,
wood, hides and skins; manufacturing industries–textiles, cement, building
materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 28% of GNP and half of labor force; inefficient
small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and
now an importer; cash crops–cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food
crops–corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock–cattle,
sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited

Illicit drugs: illicit heroin and some cocaine trafficking;
marijuana cultivation for domestic consumption and export; major transit
country for heroin en route from Southwest Asia via Africa to Western
Europe and the US; growing transit route for cocaine from South America
via West Africa to Western Europe and the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $662 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $2.2 billion

Currency: naira (plural–naira); 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1–7.6221 (December 1989), 7.3647
(1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987), 1.7545 (1986), 0.8938 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly bituminous-surface
treatment); 25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth;
52,560 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: 2,042 km crude oil; 500 km natural gas; 3,000 km refined
products

Ports: Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele

Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 428,116
GRT/680,343 DWT; includes 19 cargo, 1 refrigerated, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

Airports: 84 total, 72 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average system limited by poor maintenance;
major expansion in progress; radio relay and cable routes; 155,000 telephones;
stations–37 AM, 19 FM, 38 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, domestic, with 19 stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 27,282,248; 15,587,485 fit for military
service; 1,263,883 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GNP, or $300 million (1990 est.)
.pa
Niue
(free association with New Zealand)
Geography
Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: 61% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 12% other

Environment: subject to typhoons

Note: one of world’s largest coral islands; located about 460 km
east of Tonga

People
Population: 2,019 (July 1990), growth rate NA (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Niuean(s); adjective–Niuean

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans

Religion: 75% Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church)–a Protestant
church closely related to the London Missionary Society, 10% Mormon, 5% Roman
Catholic, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Polynesian tongue closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory between 5 and 14 years of age

Labor force: 1,000 (1981 est.); most work on family plantations; paid work
exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development
Board

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (self-governing territory in free association with
New Zealand)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution

Legal system: English common law

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: British monarch, premier, Cabinet

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by New Zealand Representative John SPRINGFORD (since 1974);

Head of Government–Premier Sir Robert R. REX (since NA October
1974)

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Political parties and leaders: Niue People’s Action Party,
leader NA

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held on 28 March 1987 (next to be
held NA 1990);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(20 total, 6 elected) independents 5, Niue People’s Action Party 1

Member of: ESCAP (associate member), SPF

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing territory in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars–a large one on a blue
disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross

Economy
Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New
Zealand. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the
shortfall made up by grants from New Zealand–the grants are used to pay
wages to the 80% or more of the work force employed in public service.
The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some
cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories
to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of
postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue.
The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population
because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand.

GNP: $2.1 million, per capita $1,000; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $5.5 million; expenditures $6.3 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY85 est.)

Exports: $175,274 (f.o.b., 1985); commodities–canned coconut cream,
copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs,
stamps, handicrafts; partners–NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities–food, live
animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs;
partners–NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,500 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
1,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourist, handicrafts

Agriculture: copra, coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence
crops–taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $58 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural–dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1–1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Highways: 123 km all-weather roads, 106 km access and plantation roads

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway of 1,650 m

Telecommunications: single-line telephone system connects all villages on
island; 383 telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); stations–1 AM, 1 FM,
no TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
.pa
Norfolk Island
(territory of Australia)
Geography
Total area: 34.6 km2; land area: 34.6 km2

Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 25% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: subject to typhoons (especially May to July)

Note: located 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean

People
Population: 2,533 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Norfolk Islander(s); adjective–Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutiny; more recently,
Australian and New Zealand settlers

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Uniting Church in
Australia, and Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official) and Norfolk–a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Territory of Norfolk Island

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: Kingston (administrative center), Burnt Pine (commercial center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1957

Legal system: wide legislative and executive responsibility under the
Norfolk Island Act of 1979; Supreme Court

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Administrator H. B. MACDONALD (since NA 1989), who is appointed
by the Governor General of Australia;

Head of Government–Assembly President and Chief Minister John
Terence BROWN (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(9 total) percent of seats by party NA

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a
large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band

Economy
Overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought
a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The
number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached almost
30,000 in 1986. Revenues from tourism have given the island a favorable balance
of trade and helped the agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the
production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.4 million; expenditures $3.4 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $1.8 million (f.o.b., FY85); commodities–postage
stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia Palm, small quantities of
avocados;
partners–Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $16.3 million (c.i.f., FY85); commodities–NA;
partners–Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
3,210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1–1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

Communications
Highways: 80 km of roads, including 53 km of sealed roads; remainder are
earth formed or coral surfaced

Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
(Australian owned)

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service
with Sydney; 987 telephones (1983); stations–1 AM, no FM, no TV

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
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Northern Mariana Islands
(commonwealth associated with the US)
Geography
Total area: 477 km2; land area: 477 km2; includes Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to July, rainy season
July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing
coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters
(Mt. Tagpochu on Saipan)

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 19% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: Mt. Pagan is an active volcano (last erupted in October
1988); subject to typhoons during the rainy season

Note: strategic location 5,635 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the
North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and
the Philippines

People
Population: 22,719 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: undetermined

Ethnic divisions: Chamorro majority; Carolinians and other Micronesians;
Spanish, German, Japanese admixtures

Religion: Christian with a Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found

Language: English, but Chamorro and Carolinian are also spoken in the
home and taught in school

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 17,533, including 10,000 foreign workers (1988 est.)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Type: commonwealth associated with the US and administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Executive branch: governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government–Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since 1978);
Lieutenant Governor Pedro A. TENORIO (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Antonio S. Guerrero;
Republican Party, Alonso Igisomar

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor–last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results–Pedro P. TENORIO (Democratic Party) was elected;

Senate–last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(9 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives–last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(14 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) party of nonvoting delegate NA

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building)
in the center

Economy
Overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance
from the US. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitles the islands to
$228 million for capital development, government operations, and special
programs. Another major source of income is the tourist industry, which
employs about 10% of the work force. The agricultural sector is made up of
cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and
melons. Industry is small scale in nature–mostly handicrafts and fish
processing.

GNP: $165 million, per capita $9,170; real growth rate NA% (1982)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $70.6 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $NA; commodities–vegetables, beef, pork;
partners–NA

Imports: $NA; commodities–NA;
partners–NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
1,640 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts

Agriculture: coffee, coconuts, fruits, tobacco, cattle

Aid: none

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: 300 km total (53 km primary, 55 km secondary, 192 km local)

Ports: Saipan, Rota, Tinian

Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
.pa
Norway
Geography
Total area: 324,220 km2; land area: 307,860 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,582 km total; Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,657,
USSR 196 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (3,419 km mainland; 2,413 km large islands;
16,093 km long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with USSR; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Denmark has challenged Norway’s maritime
claims beween Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder
interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Natural resources: crude oil, copper, natural gas, pyrites,
nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: 3% arable land; 0% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 70% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution; acid rain

Note: strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway and
Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

People
Population: 4,252,806 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Norwegian(s); adjective–Norwegian

Ethnic divisions: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic) and racial-cultural
minority of 20,000 Lapps

Religion: 94% Evangelical Lutheran (state church), 4% other Protestant and
Roman Catholic, 2% other

Language: Norwegian (official); small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking
minorities

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 2,164,000; 33.6% services, 17.4% commerce, 16.6% mining and
manufacturing, 8.4% transportation, 7.8% construction,
6.8% banking and financial services, 6.5% agriculture, forestry, and
fishing (1986)

Organized labor: 66% of labor force (1985)

Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Norway

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular–fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal,
Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law
traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, State Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Storting or Stortinget)
with an Upper Chamber (Lagting) and a Lower Chamber (Odelsting)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hoiesterett)

Leaders:
Chief of State–King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HARALD (born 21 February 1937);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Jan P. SYSE (since 16 October
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Labor, Gro Harlem Brundtland;
Conservative, Jan P. Syse; Center, Johan J. Jakobsen; Christian
People’s, Kjell Magne Bondevik; Socialist Left, Eric Solheim; Norwegian
Communist, Hans I. Kleven; Progress, Carl I. Hagen; Liberal, Arne
Fjortoft; Finnmark List, leader NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament–last held on 11 September 1989 (next to be held
6 September 1993);
results–Labor 34.3%, Conservative 22.2%, Progress 13.0%, Socialist Left
10.1%, Christian People’s 8.5%, Center 6.6%, Finnmark List 0.3%, others
5%;
seats–(165 total) Labor 63, Conservative 37, Progress 22, Socialist
Left 17, Christian People’s 14, Center 11, Finnmark List 1

Communists: 15,500 est.; 5,500 Norwegian Communist Party (NKP); 10,000
Workers Communist Party Marxist-Leninist (AKP-ML, pro-Chinese)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA (associate member),
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU,
IWC–International Whaling Commission, IWC–International
Wheat Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kjeld VIBE; Chancery at
2720 34th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6000;
there are Norwegian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Miami and New
Orleans;
US–Ambassador Loret Miller RUPPE; Embassy at Drammensveien 18,
Oslo 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09085); telephone Õ47å
(2) 44-85-50

Flag: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy
Overview: Norway is a prosperous capitalist nation with the resources
to finance extensive welfare measures. Since 1975 exploitation of large
crude oil and natural gas reserves has helped achieve an average annual
growth of roughly 4%, the third-highest among OECD countries. Growth
slackened in 1987-88 because of the sharp drop in world oil prices and a
slowdown in consumer spending, but picked up again in 1989. Future
economic issues involve the aging of the population, the increased
economic integration of Europe, and the balance between private and
public influence in economic decisions.

GDP: $75.8 billion, per capita $17,900; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.9% (1989 est., excluding people in
job-training programs)

Budget: revenues $40.6 billion; expenditures $41.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities–petroleum and petroleum products 25%, natural gas
11%, fish 7%, aluminum 6%, ships 3.5%, pulp and paper;
partners–UK 26%, EFTA 16.3%, less developed countries 14%,
Sweden 12%, FRG 12%, US 6%, Denmark 5% (1988)

Imports: $18.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–machinery,
fuels and lubricants, transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, clothing,
ships; partners–Sweden 18%, less developed countries 18%,
FRG 14%, Denmark 8%, UK 7%, US 7%, Japan 5% (1988)

External debt: $18.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 15.8% (1989)

Electricity: 26,735,000 kW capacity; 121,685 million kWh produced,
28,950 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 3.1% of GNP and 6.5% of labor force;
among world’s top 10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value
of crops; over half of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.9 million
metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor–ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $3.7 billion

Currency: Norwegian krone (plural–kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1–6.5405 (January 1990),
6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986), 8.5972 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways
(NSB) operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4
km other

Highways: 79,540 km total; 18,600 km concrete, bituminous, stone block;
19,980 km bituminous treated; 40,960 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth

Inland waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 1.5-2.4 m draft vessels
maximum

Pipelines: refined products, 53 km

Ports: Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger,
Trondheim

Merchant marine: 660 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,702,254
GRT/28,722,304 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 19 short-sea passenger, 104 cargo,
3 passenger-cargo, 19 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 40 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 6 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 128 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 86 chemical tanker, 62 liquefied gas, 26 combination ore/oil,
142 bulk, 7 combination bulk; note–the government has created a captive
register, the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of
the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of
convenience and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of
ships under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

Airports: 104 total, 104 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: high-quality domestic and international telephone,
telegraph, and telex services; 3,102,000 telephones; stations–8 AM, 46 (1,400
relays) FM, 55 (2,100 relays) TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; communications
satellite earth stations operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean),
MARISAT, and domestic systems

Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,115,620; 937,555 fit for military
service; 32,748 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP, or $2.5 billion (1989 est.)
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Oman
Geography
Total area: 212,460 km2; land area: 212,460 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: 1,374 km total; Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km,
PDRY 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to be defined;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Administrative Line with PDRY; no defined boundary with
most of UAE, Administrative Line in far north

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south

Natural resources: crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone,
chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 95% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms
in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources

Note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam
Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz (17% of world’s oil production
transits this point going from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

People
Population: 1,457,064 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Omani(s); adjective–Omani

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Arab, with small Balochi, Zanzibari, and
Indian groups

Religion: 75% Ibadhi Muslim; remainder Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, some
Hindu

Language: Arabic (official); English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy: 20%

Labor force: 430,000; 60% agriculture (est.); 58% are non-Omani

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

Government
Long-form name: Sultanate of Oman

Type: absolute monarchy; independent, with residual UK influence

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1650, expulsion of the Portuguese

Constitution: none

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Executive branch: sultan, Cabinet, State Consultative Assembly

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent
civil court system

National holiday: National Day, 18 November

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS
bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)

Political parties: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Other political or pressure groups: outlawed Popular Front for the
Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in South Yemen; small, clandestine Shia
fundamentalist groups are active

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Awadh Bader AL-SHANFARI; Chancery at
2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-1980
through 1982;
US–Ambassador Richard BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 966, Muscat); telephone 738-231 or 738-006

Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green
(double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national
emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords
in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band

Economy
Overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil
industry. Petroleum accounts for nearly all export earnings, about 70% of
government revenues, and more than 50% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of
4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years’ supply at the current
rate of extraction. Although agriculture employs a majority of the population,
urban centers depend on imported food.

GDP: $7.8 billion, per capita $6,006; real growth rate – 3.0% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.1 billion; expenditures $4.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.0 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities–petroleum, reexports, processed copper, dates, nuts, fish;
partners–Japan, South Korea, Thailand

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities
–machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food,
livestock, lubricants; partners–Japan, UAE, UK, FRG, US

External debt: $3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.0% (1986)

Electricity: 1,130,000 kW capacity; 3,600 million kWh produced,
2,760 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Agriculture: accounts for 3.4% of GDP and 60% of the labor force
(including fishing); less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence
farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $122 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $92 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million

Currency: Omani rial (plural–rials); 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1–0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 22,800 km total; 3,800 km bituminous surface, 19,000 km
motorable track

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports: Mina Qabus, Mina Raysut

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 128 total, 119 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire, radio relay, and radio
communications stations; 50,000 telephones; stations–3 AM, 3 FM, 11 TV;
satellite earth stations–2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT and 8 domestic

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 350,173; 198,149 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 16.5% of GDP, or $1.3 billion (1990 est.)
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Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
(Palau)
Geography
Total area: 458 km2; land area: 458

Collection Of Complete World Facts Volume 3 (1990)

Guam
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 541 km2; land area: 541 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 125.5 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by
northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season from
July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively flat
coraline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with steep coastal
cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising hills in center,
mountains in south

Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism (especially
from Japan)

Land use: 11% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures;
18% forest and woodland; 45% other

Environment: frequent squalls during rainy season; subject to relatively
rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in August)

Note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana Islands archipelago;
strategic location in western North Pacific Ocean 5,955 km west-southwest of
Honolulu about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and the Philippines

People
Population: 141,039 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guamanian(s); adjective–Guamanian

Ethnic divisions: 47% Chamorro, 25% Filipino, 10% Caucasian,
18% Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic, 2% other

Language: English and Chamorro, most residents bilingual; Japanese
also widely spoken

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 54,000; 42% government, 58% private (1988)

Organized labor: 13% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Territory of Guam

Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US

Capital: Agana

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March), 6 March 1989

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Guam (Federal District Court)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government–Governor Joseph A. ADA (since NA November 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (controls the
legislature); Republican Party (party of the Governor)

Suffrage: universal at age 18; US citizens, but do not vote in US
presidential elections

Elections:
Governor–last held on NA November 1986 (next to be held
November 1990);

Legislature–last held on 8 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1990);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(21 total) Democratic 13, Republican 8;

US House of Representatives–last held 8 November
1988 (next to be held November 1990);
Guam elects one nonvoting delegate;
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(1 total) Republican 1

Communists: none

Note: relations between Guam and the US are under the jurisdiction of the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: dark blue with a narrow red border on all four sides; centered is a
red-bordered, pointed, vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, outrigger
canoe with sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold
red letters

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on US military spending and on revenues
from tourism. Over the past 20 years the tourist industry has grown
rapidly, creating a construction boom for new hotels and the expansion of
older ones. Visitors numbered about 800,000 in 1989. The small manufacturing
sector includes textile and clothing, beverage, food, and watch
production. About 58% of the labor force works for the private sector and the
rest for government. Most food and industrial goods are imported, with about 75%
from the US. In 1989 the unemployment rate was about 3%, down from 10% in
1983.

GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $7,675; real growth rate 20%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $208.0 million; expenditures $175 million, including
capital expenditures of $17 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $39 million (f.o.b., 1983);
commodities–mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products,
copra, fish;
partners–US 25%, others 75%

Imports: $611 million (c.i.f., 1983);
commodities–mostly crude petroleum and petroleum products, food,
manufactured goods;
partners–US 77%, others 23%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 500,000 kW capacity; 2,300 million kWh produced,
16,660 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: US military, tourism, petroleum refining, construction,
concrete products, printing and publishing, food processing, textiles

Agriculture: relatively undeveloped with most food imported;
fruits, vegetables, eggs, pork, poultry, beef, copra

Aid: NA

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Highways: 674 km all-weather roads

Ports: Apra Harbor

Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 26,317 telephones (1989); stations–3 AM, 3 FM, 3 TV;
2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT ground stations

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
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Guatemala
Geography
Total area: 108,890 km2; land area: 108,430 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,687 km total; Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km,
Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km

Coastline: 400 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Belize, but boundary negotiations are under way

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling
limestone plateau (Peten)

Natural resources: crude oil, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle

Land use: 12% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures;
40% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: numerous volcanoes in mountains, with frequent violent
earthquakes; Caribbean coast subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms;
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Note: no natural harbors on west coast

People
Population: 9,097,636 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guatemalan(s); adjective–Guatemalan

Ethnic divisions: 56% Ladino (mestizo–mixed Indian and European
ancestry), 44% Indian

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; also Protestant, traditional
Mayan

Language: Spanish, but over 40% of the population speaks an Indian
language as a primary tongue (18 Indian dialects, including Quiche, Cakchiquel,
Kekchi)

Literacy: 50%

Labor force: 2,500,000; 57.0% agriculture, 14.0% manufacturing,
13.0% services, 7.0% commerce, 4.0% construction, 3.0% transport,
0.8% utilities, 0.4% mining (1985)

Organized labor: 8% of labor force (1988 est.)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Guatemala

Type: republic

Capital: Guatemala

Administrative divisions: 22 departments (departamentos,
singular–departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula,
El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa,
Peten, Quezaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos,
Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Mario Vinicio CEREZO
Arevalo (since 14 January 1986); Vice President Roberto CARPIO Nicolle
(since 14 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCG),
Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo;
National Centrist Union (UCN), Jorge Carpio Nicolle;
National Liberation Movement (MLN), Mario Sandoval Alarcon;
Social Action Movement (MAS), Jorge Serrano Elias;
Revolutionary Party (PR) in coalition with National Renewal Party (PNR),
Alejandro Maldonado Aguirre;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Mario Solarzano Martinez;
National Authentic Center (CAN), Mario David Garcia;
United Anti-Communist Party (PUA), Leonel Sisniega;
Emerging Movement for Harmony (MEC), Louis Gordillo;
Democratic Party of National Cooperation (PDCN), Adan Fletes;
Democratic Institutional Party (PID), Oscar Rivas;
Nationalist United Front (FUN), Gabriel Giron

Suffrage: universal at age 18, compulsory for literates, voluntary for
illiterates

Elections:
President–last held on 3 December 1985 (next to be held 3 November 1990);
results–Mario Vinicio Cerezo Arevalo (DCG) 38.7%, Jorge Carpio
Nicolle (UCN) 20.2%, Jorge Serrano Elias (PDCN/PR) 14.8%;

National Congress–last held on 3 November 1985 (next to be held
3 November 1990);
results–DCG 38.7%, UCN 20.2%, PDCN/PR 13.8%, MLN/PID 12.6%,
CAN 6.3%, PSD 3.4%, PNR 3.2%, PUA/FUN/MEC 1.9%;
seats–(100 total) DCG 51, UCN 22, MLN 12, PDCN/PR 11, PSD 2, PNR 1, CAN 1

Communists: Guatemalan Labor Party (PGT); main radical left guerrilla
groups–Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), Revolutionary Organization of the
People in Arms (ORPA), Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and PGT dissidents

Other political or pressure groups: Federated Chambers of Commerce and
Industry (CACIF), Mutual Support Group (GAM), Unity for Popular and Labor
Action (UASP), Agrarian Owners Group (UNAGRO), Committee for Campesino Unity
(CUC)

Member of: CACM, CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO,
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rodolfo ROHRMOSER V;
Chancery at 2220 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
745-4952 through 4954;
there are Guatemalan Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador Thomas F. STROOCK; Embassy at 7-01 Avenida de la
Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City (mailing address is APO Miami 34024);
telephone Õ502å (2) 31-15-41

Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and
light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the
inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of
independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a
pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath

Economy
Overview: The economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for
25% of GDP, employs about 60% of the labor force, and supplies two-thirds
of exports. Industry accounts for about 20% of GDP and 15% of the labor
force. The economy has reentered a slow-growth phase, but is hampered by
political uncertainty. In 1988 the economy grew by 3.7%, the third
consecutive year of mild growth. Government economic reforms introduced
since 1986 have stabilized exchange rates and have helped to stem
inflationary pressures. The inflation rate has dropped from 36.9%
in 1986 to 15% in 1989.

GDP: $10.8 billion, per capita $1,185; real growth rate 1.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 13%, with 30-40% underemployment (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $771 million; expenditures $957 million, including
capital expenditures of $188 million (1988)

Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–coffee 38%, bananas 7%, sugar 7%, cardamom 4%;
partners–US 29%, El Salvador, FRG, Costa Rica, Italy

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–fuel and petroleum products, machinery, grain, fertilizers,
motor vehicles;
partners–US 38%, Mexico, FRG, Japan, El Salvador

External debt: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 807,000 kW capacity; 2,540 million kWh produced,
280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals,
petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP; most important sector of economy
and contributes two-thirds to export earnings; principal
crops–sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom;
livestock–cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens; food importer

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; the government has engaged in aerial
eradication of opium poppy; transit country for cocaine shipments

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $869 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.7 billion

Currency: quetzal (plural–quetzales); 1 quetzal (Q) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: free market quetzales (Q) per US$1–3.3913
(January 1990), 2.8261 (1989), 2.6196 (1988), 2.500 (1987), 1.875 (1986),
1.000 (1985); note–black-market rate 2.800 (May 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 870 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track; 780 km government
owned, 90 km privately owned

Highways: 26,429 km total; 2,868 km paved, 11,421 km gravel, and 12,140
unimproved

Inland waterways: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km
navigable during high-water season

Pipelines: crude oil, 275 km

Ports: Puerto Barrios, Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,129 GRT/6,450 DWT

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

Airports: 451 total, 391 usable; 11 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fairly modern network centered in Guatemala
Õcityå; 97,670 telephones; stations–91 AM, no FM, 25 TV, 15 shortwave;
connection into Central American Microwave System; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,028,875; 1,327,374 fit for military
service; 107,251 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP, or $115 million (1990 est.)
.pa
Guernsey
(British crown dependency)
Geography
Total area: 194 km2; land area: 194 km2; includes Alderney, Guernsey,
Herm, Sark, and some other smaller islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 50 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of
days are overcast

Terrain: mostly level with low hills in southwest

Natural resources: cropland

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; about 50% cultivated

Environment: large, deepwater harbor at St. Peter Port

Note: 52 km west of France

People
Population: 57,227 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Channel Islander(s); adjective–Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist,
Congregational, Methodist

Language: English, French; Norman-French dialect spoken in country
districts

Literacy: NA%, but universal education

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Bailiwick of Guernsey

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: St. Peter Port

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: English law and local statute; justice is administered by
the Royal Court

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff,
deputy bailiff

Legislative branch: States of Deliberation

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government–Lieutenant Governor Lt. Gen. Sir Alexander
BOSWELL (since 1985); Bailiff Sir Charles FROSSARD (since 1982)

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
States of Deliberation–last held NA (next to be held NA);
results–percent of vote NA;
seats–(60 total, 33 elected), all independents

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England)
extending to the edges of the flag

Economy
Overview: Tourism is a major source of revenue. Other economic
activity includes financial services, breeding the world-famous
Guernsey cattle, and growing tomatoes and flowers for export.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 9% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $145.0 million; expenditures $117.2 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $NA;
commodities–tomatoes, flowers and ferns, sweet peppers, eggplant,
other vegetables;
partners–UK (regarded as internal trade)

Imports: $NA;
commodities–coal, gasoline and oil;
partners–UK (regarded as internal trade)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 525 million kWh produced,
9,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, banking

Agriculture: tomatoes, flowers (mostly grown in greenhouses),
sweet peppers, eggplant, other vegetables and fruit; Guernsey cattle

Aid: none

Currency: Guernsey pound (plural–pounds);
1 Guernsey (LG) pound = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Guernsey pounds (LG) per US$1–0.6055 (January
1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986),
0.7714 (1985); note–the Guernsey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Ports: St. Peter Port, St. Sampson

Airport: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (La Villiaze)

Telecommunications: stations–1 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 41,900
telephones; 1 submarine cable

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
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Guinea
Geography
Total area: 245,860 km2; land area: 245,860 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 3,399 km total; Guinea-Bissau 386 km, Ivory Coast
610 km, Liberia 563 km, Mali 858 km, Senegal 330 km, Sierra Leone 652 km

Coastline: 320 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season
(June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to
May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: generally flat coastal plain, hilly to mountainous interior

Natural resources: bauxite, iron ore, diamonds, gold, uranium,
hydropower, fish

Land use: 6% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and
pastures; 42% forest and woodland; 40% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during
dry season; deforestation

People
Population: 7,269,240 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 22 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 147 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 40 years male, 44 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guinean(s); adjective–Guinean

Ethnic divisions: Fulani, Malinke, Sousou, 15 smaller tribes

Religion: 85% Muslim, 5% indigenous beliefs, 1.5% Christian

Language: French (official); each tribe has its own language

Literacy: 20% in French; 48% in local languages

Labor force: 2,400,000 (1983); 82.0% agriculture, 11.0% industry and
commerce, 5.4% services; 88,112 civil servants (1987); 52% of population of
working age (1985)

Organized labor: virtually 100% of wage earners loosely affiliated with
the National Confederation of Guinean Workers

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Guinea

Type: republic

Capital: Conakry

Administrative divisions: 29 administrative regions (regions
administratives, singular–region administrative); Beyla, Boffa, Boke,
Conakry, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye, Dubreka, Faranah, Forecariah, Fria, Gaoual,
Gueckedou, Kankan, Kerouane, Kindia, Kissidougou, Koundara, Kouroussa, Labe,
Macenta, Mali, Mamou, Nzerekore, Pita, Siguiri, Telimele, Tougue, Yomou

Independence: 2 October 1958 (from France; formerly French Guinea)

Constitution: 14 May 1982, suspended after coup of 3 April 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system, customary law, and decree;
legal codes currently being revised; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Second Republic, 3 April (1984)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National
Recovery (Comite Militaire de Redressement National or CMRN), Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: People’s National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale
Populaire) was dissolved after the 3 April 1984 coup

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d’Appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Gen. Lansana CONTE (since
5 April 1984)

Political parties and leaders: none; following the 3 April 1984
coup all political activity was banned

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: no Communist party, although there are some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
Mano River Union, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kekoura CAMARA; Chancery at
2112 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-9420;
US–Ambassador Samuel E. LUPO; Embassy at 2nd Boulevard and 9th Avenue,
Conakry (mailing address is B. P. 603, Conakry); telephone 44-15-20 through 24

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green;
uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Rwanda
which has a large black letter R centered in the yellow band

Economy
Overview: Although possessing many natural resources and considerable
potential for agricultural development, Guinea is one of the poorest
countries in the world. The agricultural sector contributes about 40%
to GDP and employs more than 80% of the work force, while industry
accounts for about 25% of GDP. Guinea possesses over 25% of the
world’s bauxite reserves; exports of bauxite and alumina accounted for more
than 80% of total exports in 1986.

GDP: $2.5 billion, per capita $350; real growth rate 5.0%
(1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $357 million; expenditures $480 million, including
capital expenditures of $229 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $553 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities–alumina, bauxite, diamonds, coffee, pineapples, bananas,
palm kernels;
partners–US 33%, EC 33%, USSR and Eastern Europe 20%, Canada

Imports: $509 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.);
commodities–petroleum products, metals, machinery, transport equipment,
foodstuffs, textiles and other grain;
partners–US 16%, France, Brazil

External debt: $1.6 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 113,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: bauxite mining, alumina, diamond mining, light
manufacturing and agricultural processing industries

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP (includes fishing and forestry);
mostly subsistence farming; principal products–rice, coffee, pineapples, palm
kernels, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, timber; livestock–cattle,
sheep and goats; not self-sufficient in food grains

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $203 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $882 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $120 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$446 million

Currency: Guinean franc (plural–francs);
1 Guinean franc (FG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Guinean francs (FG) per US$1–505.00 (October 1988),
440.00 (January 1988), 440.00 (1987), 235.63 (1986), 22.47 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 1,045 km; 806 km 1.000-meter gauge, 239 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge

Highways: 30,100 km total; 1,145 km paved, 12,955 km gravel or laterite
(of which barely 4,500 km are currently all-weather roads), 16,000 km unimproved
earth (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable by shallow-draft native craft

Ports: Conakry, Kamsar

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 16 total, 16 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, small
radiocommunication stations, and new radio relay system; 10,000 telephones;
stations–3 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 12,000 TV sets; 125,000 radio receivers;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army (ground forces), Navy (acts primarily as a coast guard),
Air Force, paramilitary National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,657,787; 834,777 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1984)
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Guinea-Bissau
Geography
Total area: 36,120 km2; land area: 28,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries: 724 km total; Guinea 386, Senegal 338 km

Coastline: 350 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ) has rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary (in favor
of Senegal)–that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau

Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoon-type rainy
season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December
to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds

Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east

Natural resources: unexploited deposits of petroleum, bauxite,
phosphates; fish, timber

Land use: 11% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 43% meadows and
pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during
dry season

People
Population: 998,963 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 19 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 127 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guinea-Bissauan(s); adjective–Guinea-Bissauan

Ethnic divisions: about 99% African (30% Balanta, 20% Fula, 14% Manjaca,
13% Mandinga, 7% Papel); less than 1% European and mulatto

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 5% Christian

Language: Portuguese (official); Criolo and numerous African languages

Literacy: 34% (1986)

Labor force: 403,000 (est.); 90% agriculture, 5% industry,
services, and commerce, 5% government; 53% of population of working
age (1983)

Organized labor: only one trade union–the National Union of Workers of
Guinea-Bissau (UNTG)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

Type: republic; highly centralized one-party regime since September 1974

Capital: Bissau

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular–regiao);
Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara,
Tombali

Independence: 24 September 1973 (from Portugal; formerly Portuguese
Guinea)

Constitution: 16 May 1984

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)

Executive branch: president of the Council of State, vice presidents
of the Council of State, Council of State, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People’s Assembly (Assembleia
Nacional Popular)

Judicial branch: none; there is a Ministry of Justice in the Council
of Ministers

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President of the
Council of State Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo VIEIRA (assumed power 14
November 1980 and elected President of Council of State on 16 May 1984);
First Vice President Col. Iafai CAMARA (since 7 November 1985); Second
Vice President Vasco CABRAL (since 21 June 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party–African Party for the
Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), President
Joao Bernardo Vieira, leader; the party decided to retain the
binational title despite its formal break with Cape Verde

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President of Council of State–last held 19 June 1989 (next
to be held 19 June 1994);
results–Brig. Gen. Joao Bernardo Vieira was reelected without
opposition by the National People’s Assembly;

National People’s Assembly–last held 15 June 1989 (next
to be held 15 June 1994);
results–PAIGC is the only party;
seats–(150 total) PAIGC 150, appointed by Regional Councils;

Regional Councils–last held 1 June 1989 (next to be held 1 June
1994); results–PAIGC is the only party;
seats–(473 total) PAIGC 473, by public plebiscite

Communists: a few Communists, some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, IRC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alfredo Lopes CABRAL; Chancery
(temporary) at the Guinea-Bissauan Permanent Mission to the UN, Suite 604,
211 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 661-3977;
US–Ambassador William L. JACOBSEN; Embassy at 17 Avenida Domingos Ramos,
Bissau (mailing address is C. P. 297, Bissau); telephone Õ245å 212816, 21817,
213674

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical
red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the
red band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag
of Cape Verde which has the black star raised above the center of the red band
and is framed by two corn stalks and a yellow clam shell

Economy
Overview: Guinea-Bissau ranks among the poorest countries in the world,
with a per capita GDP below $200. Agriculture and fishing are the main economic
activities, with cashew nuts, peanuts, and palm kernels the primary exports.
Exploitation of known mineral deposits is unlikely at present because of a weak
infrastructure and the high cost of development. The government’s four-year plan
(1988-91) has targeted agricultural development as the top priority.

GDP: $152 million, per capita $160 (1988); real growth rate
5.6% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $20 million; expenditures $25 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $15 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities–cashews, fish, peanuts, palm kernels;
partners–Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Cape Verde, China

Imports: $49 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities–capital equipment, consumer goods, semiprocessed goods,
foods, petroleum;
partners–Portugal, USSR, EC countries, other Europe, Senegal, US

External debt: $465 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate – 1.7% (1986 est.)

Electricity: 22,000 kW capacity; 28 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing, beer, soft drinks

Agriculture: accounts for over 50% of GDP, nearly 100% of exports,
and 80% of employment; rice is the staple food; other crops include
corn, beans, cassava, cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, and cotton; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing and forestry potential not fully
exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $46 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $519 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $41 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$68 million

Currency: Guinea-Bissauan peso (plural–pesos);
1 Guinea-Bissauan peso (PG) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Guinea-Bissauan pesos (PG) per US$1–650 pesos
(December 1989), NA (1988), 851.65 (1987), 238.98 (1986), 173.61 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 3,218 km; 2,698 km bituminous, remainder earth

Inland waterways: scattered stretches are important to coastal commerce

Ports: Bissau

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 18 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of radio relay, open-wire lines,
and radiocommunications; 3,000 telephones; stations–1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: People’s Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP); Army, Navy, and Air
Force are separate components

Military manpower: males 15-49, 215,552; 122,824 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3.2% of GDP (1987)
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Guyana
Geography
Total area: 214,970 km2; land area: 196,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Idaho

Land boundaries: 2,462 km total; Brazil 1,119 km, Suriname 600 km,
Venezuela 743 km

Coastline: 459 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Essequibo area claimed by Venezuela; Suriname claims area
between New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters
of the Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds;
two rainy seasons (May to mid-August, mid-November to mid-January)

Terrain: mostly rolling highlands; low coastal plain; savanna in south

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber,
shrimp, fish

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 83% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: flash floods a constant threat during rainy seasons;
water pollution

People
Population: 764,649 (July 1990), growth rate – 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 19 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Guyanese (sing., pl.); adjective–Guyanese

Ethnic divisions: 51% East Indian, 43% black and mixed, 4% Amerindian, 2%
European and Chinese

Religion: 57% Christian, 33% Hindu, 9% Muslim, 1% other

Language: English, Amerindian dialects

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 268,000; 44.5% industry and commerce, 33.8% agriculture,
21.7% services; public-sector employment amounts to 60-80% of the total labor
force (1985)

Organized labor: 34% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Type: republic

Capital: Georgetown

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Barima-Waini, Cuyuni-Mazaruni,
Demerara-Mahaica, East Berbice-Corentyne, Essequibo Islands-West Demerara,
Mahaica-Berbice, Pomeroon-Supenaam, Potaro-Siparuni, Upper Demerara-Berbice,
Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo

Independence: 26 May 1966 (from UK; formerly British Guiana)

Constitution: 6 October 1980

Legal system: based on English common law with certain admixtures of
Roman-Dutch law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 23 February (1970)

Executive branch: executive president, first vice president,
prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Hugh Desmond HOYTE (since 6 August 1985);
First Vice President Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Hamilton GREEN (since 6 August 1985)

Political parties and leaders: People’s National Congress (PNC), Hugh
Desmond Hoyte; People’s Progressive Party (PPP), Cheddi Jagan; Working People’s
Alliance (WPA), Eusi Kwayana, Rupert Roopnarine, Moses Bhagwan; Democratic Labor
Movement (DLM), Paul Tennassee; People’s Democratic Movement (PDM),
Llewellyn John; National Democratic Front (NDF), Joseph Bacchus; United Force
(UF), Marcellus Feilden Singh; Vanguard for Liberation and Democracy (VLD,
also known as Liberator Party), Gunraj Kumar, J. K. Makepeace Richmond

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Executive President–last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be
held late 1990); Hugh Desmond Hoyte was elected president (the leader
of the party with the most votes in the National Assembly
elections–PNC 78%);

National Assembly–last held on 9 December 1985 (next to be held
by 9 December 1990);
results–PNC 78%, PPP 16%, UF 4%, WPA 2%;
seats–(65 total, 53 elected) PNC 42, PPP 8, UF 2, WPA 1

Communists: 100 (est.) hardcore within PPP; top echelons of PPP and PYO
(Progressive Youth Organization, militant wing of the PPP) include many
Communists; small but unknown number of orthodox Marxist-Leninists within PNC,
some of whom formerly belonged to the PPP

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress (TUC);
Guyana Council of Indian Organizations (GCIO); Civil Liberties Action Committee
(CLAC); the latter two organizations are small and active but not well organized

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICJ, IDA, IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Cedric Hilburn GRANT;
Chancery at 2490 Tracy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6900;
there is a Guyanese Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Theresa A. TULL; Embassy at 31 Main Street, Georgetown;
telephone Õ592å (02) 54900 through 54909

Flag: green with a red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
superimposed on a long yellow arrowhead; there is a narrow black border between
the red and yellow, and a narrow white border between the yellow and the green

Economy
Overview: After growing on average at less than 1% a year in 1984-87,
GDP dropped by 3% in 1988, the result of bad weather, labor trouble in the
canefields, and flooding and equipment problems in the bauxite industry.
Consumer prices rose about 35%, and the current account deficit widened
substantially as sugar and bauxite exports fell. Moreover, electric power
is in short supply and constitutes a major barrier to future gains in
national output. The government, in association with international financial
agencies, seeks to reduce its payment arrears and to raise new funds. The
government’s stabilization program–aimed at establishing realistic
exchange rates, reasonable price stability, and a resumption of
growth–requires considerable public administrative abilities and
continued patience by consumers during a long incubation period.

GDP: $323 million, per capita $420; real growth rate – 3.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $173 million; expenditures $414 million, including
capital expenditures of $75 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.)
commodities–bauxite, sugar, rice, shrimp, gold, molasses, timber, rum;
partners–UK 37%, US 12%, Canada 10.6%, CARICOM 4.8% (1986)

Imports: $216 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.);
commodities–manufactures machinery, food, petroleum;
partners–CARICOM 41%, US 18%, UK 9%, Canada 3% (1984)

External debt: $1.8 billion, including arrears (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate – 5.0% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 221,000 kW capacity; 583 million kWh produced,
760 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: bauxite mining, sugar, rice milling, timber, fishing (shrimp),
textiles, gold mining

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 25% of GDP and over 50%
of exports; sugar and rice are key crops; development potential exists for
fishing and forestry; not self-sufficient in food, especially wheat, vegetable
oils, and animal products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $109 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $234 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $242 million

Currency: Guyanese dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Guyanese dollar (G$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Guyanese dollars (G$) per US$1–33.0000 (January 1990),
27.159 (1989), 10.000 (1988), 9.756 (1987), 4.272 (1986), 4.252 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 187 km total, all single track 0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 7,665 km total; 550 km paved, 5,000 km gravel, 1,525 km earth,
590 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 6,000 km total of navigable waterways; Berbice,
Demerara, and Essequibo Rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 150 km,
100 km, and 80 km, respectively

Ports: Georgetown

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 66 total, 63 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay network; over 27,000
telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad; stations–4 AM, 3 FM, no TV,
1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Guyana Defense Force (including Maritime Corps and Air Corps),
Guyana Police Force, Guyana People’s Militia, Guyana National Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 201,104; 152,958 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $13.8 million (1988 est.)
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Haiti
Geography
Total area: 27,750 km2; land area: 27,560 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundary: 275 km with the Dominican Republic

Coastline: 1,771 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims US-administered Navassa Island

Climate: tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain: mostly rough and mountainous

Natural resources: bauxite

Land use: 20% arable land; 13% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 45% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to
severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes;
deforestation

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic

People
Population: 6,142,141 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Haitian(s); adjective–Haitian

Ethnic divisions: 95% black, 5% mulatto and European

Religion: 75-80% Roman Catholic (of which an overwhelming majority also
practice Voodoo), 10% Protestant

Language: French (official) spoken by only 10% of population; all speak
Creole

Literacy: 23%

Labor force: 2,300,000; 66% agriculture, 25% services, 9% industry;
shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1982)

Organized labor: NA

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Haiti

Type: republic

Capital: Port-au-Prince

Administrative divisions: 9 departments, (departements,
singular–departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand’Anse, Nord, Nord-Est,
Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence: 1 January 1804 (from France)

Constitution: 27 August 1983, suspended February 1986; draft
constitution approved March 1987, suspended June 1988, most articles
reinstated March 1989

Legal system: based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale) consisted of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Representatives, but was dissolved on 20 June 1988 after the
coup of 19 June 1988 (there was a subsequent coup on 18 September 1988);
after naming a civilian as provisional president on 13 March 1990, it
was announced that a Council of State was being formed

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Provisional President
Ertha PASCAL-TROUILLOT (since 13 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH),
Sylvio Claude; Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire Eugene;
Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH), Marc Bazin;
National Alliance Front (FNC), Gerard Gourgue; National Agricultural and
Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis Dejoie; Congress of Democratic Movements
(CONACOM), Victor Bono; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA),
Serge Gilles; National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean
Belizaire; Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner Comeau;
Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert De Ronceray

Suffrage: none

Elections:
President–last held 17 January 1988 (next to be held
by mid-June 1990); on 13 March 1990 Ertha Pascal-Trouillot
became provisional president after the resignation of President
Lieut. Gen Prosper Avril;

Legislature–last held 17 January 1988, but dissolved on
20 June 1988; the government has promised an election by
mid-June 1990

Communists: United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene Theodore
(roughly 2,000 members)

Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Unity Confederation (KID),
Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH),
Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS), Autonomous Haitian Workers
(CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge
d’Affaires Fritz VOUGY; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there
are Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York,
and San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US–Ambassador Alvin ADAMS; Embassy at Harry Truman
Boulevard, Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince),
telephone Õ509å (1) 20354 or 20368, 20200, 20612

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered
white rectangle bearing the coat of arms which contains a palm tree flanked by
flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto
L’UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

Economy
Overview: About 85% of the population live in absolute poverty.
Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs 65% of
the work force. The majority of the population does not have ready access
to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or sufficient food. Few social
assistance programs exist, and the lack of employment opportunities remains the
most critical problem facing the economy.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 0.3% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $252 million; expenditures $357 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA million (1988)

Exports: $200 million (f.o.b., FY88);
commodities–light manufactures 65%, coffee 17%, other agriculture 8%,
other products 10%;
partners–US 77%, France 5%, Italy 4%, FRG 3%, other industrial 9%,
less developed countries 2% (FY86)

Imports: $344 million (c.i.f., FY88);
commodities–machines and manufactures 36%, food and beverages 21%,
petroleum products 11%, fats and oils 12%, chemicals 12%;
partners–US 65%, Netherlands Antilles 6%, Japan 5%, France 4%, Canada 2%,
Asia 2% (FY86)

External debt: $820 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate – 2% (FY87)

Electricity: 230,000 kW capacity; 482 million kWh produced,
75 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement manufacturing,
bauxite mining, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

Agriculture: accounts for 32% of GDP and employs 65% of work force; mostly
small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops–coffee and sugarcane; staple
crops–rice, corn, sorghum, mangoes; shortage of wheat flour

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $638 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $627 million

Currency: gourde (plural–gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1– 5.0 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

Communications
Railroads: 40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately owned
industrial line

Highways: 4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved, 2,150
km unimproved

Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

Ports: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 15 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities barely adequate, international
facilities slightly better; 36,000 telephones; stations–33 AM, no FM, 4 TV,
2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,264,238; 679,209 fit for military
service; 59,655 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
.pa
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
(territory of Australia)
Geography
Total area: 412 km2; land area: 412 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 101.9 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploration;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: Heard Island–bleak and mountainous, with an extinct
volcano; McDonald Islands–small and rocky

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: primarily used as research stations

Note: located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the
southern Indian Ocean

People
Population: uninhabited

Government
Long-form name: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division
of the Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
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Honduras
Geography
Total area: 112,090 km2; land area: 111,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,520 km total; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342
km, Nicaragua 922 km

Coastline: 820 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: several sections of the boundary with El Salvador are in dispute

Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
iron ore, antimony, coal, fish

Land use: 14% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures;
34% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes;
damaging hurricanes along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil erosion

People
Population: 5,259,699 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Honduran(s); adjective–Honduran

Ethnic divisions: 90% mestizo (mixed Indian and European), 7% Indian, 2%
black, 1% white

Religion: about 97% Roman Catholic; small Protestant minority

Language: Spanish, Indian dialects

Literacy: 56%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 62% agriculture, 20% services, 9% manufacturing,
3% construction, 6% other (1985)

Organized labor: 40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force (1985)

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Honduras

Type: republic

Capital: Tegucigalpa

Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos,
singular–departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan,
Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca,
Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara,
Valle, Yoro

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence of
English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
Romero (since 26 January 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PLH)–faction leaders,
Carlos Flores Facusse (leader of Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos Montoya
(Azconista subfaction), Ramon Villeda Bermudez and Jorge Arturo Reina (M-Lider
faction); National Party (PNH), Ricardo Maduro, party president; PNH
faction leaders–Oswaldo Ramos Soto and Rafael Leonardo Callejas
(Monarca faction); National Innovation and Unity Party-Social
Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique Aguilar Cerrato Paz; Christian Democratic
Party (PDCH), Jorge Illescas; Democratic Action (AD), Walter Lopez
Reyes

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President–last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results–Leonardo Rafael Callejas (PNH) 51%,
Jose Azcona Hoyo (PLH) 43.3%, others 5.7%;

National Congress–last held on 24 November 1985 (next to be held
November 1993);
results–PLH 51%, PNH 45%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU 1.5%, others 0.65;
seats–(134 total) PLH 62, PNH 71, PINU 1

Communists: up to 1,500; Honduran leftist groups–Communist Party of
Honduras (PCH), Party for the Transformation of Honduras (PTH),
Morazanist Front for the Liberation of Honduras (FMLH), People’s
Revolutionary Union/Popular Liberation Movement (URP/MPL), Popular
Revolutionary Forces-Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ), Socialist Party of Honduras
Central American Workers Revolutionary Party (PASO/PRTC)

Other political or pressure groups: National Association of Honduran
Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of Private Enterprise (COHEP),
Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH), National Union of Campesinos (UNC),
General Workers Confederation (CGT), United Federation of Honduran Workers
(FUTH), Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras (CODEH),
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ Alcerro;
Chancery at Suite 100, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-7700 through 7702; there are Honduran Consulates General
in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco,
and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit, Houston, and Jacksonville;
US–Ambassador Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz,
Tegucigalpa (mailing address is APO Miami 34022); telephone Õ504å 32-3120

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with
five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the
white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of
Central America–Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua;
similar to the flag of El Salvador which features a round emblem encircled by
the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the
white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua which features a triangle
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA
CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, accounting
for nearly 30% of GDP, employing 62% of the labor force, and producing
two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low, however, leaving considerable
room for improvement. Although industry is still in its early stages, it employs
nearly 15% of the labor force, accounts for 23% of GDP, and generates 20% of
exports. The service sectors, including public administration, account for 48%
of GDP and employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic problems facing the
economy include a high population growth rate, a high unemployment rate, a lack
of basic services, a large and inefficient public sector, and an export sector
dependent mostly on coffee and bananas, which are subject to sharp price
fluctuations.

GDP: $4.4 billion, per capita $890; real growth rate 4.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 12% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1988)

Budget: revenues $1,053 million; expenditures $949 million, including
capital expenditures of $159 million (1989)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber;
partners–US 52%, FRG 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f. 1988);
commodities–machinery and transport equipment, chemical products,
manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs;
partners–US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico

External debt: $3.2 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1988)

Electricity: 655,000 kW capacity; 1,980 million kWh produced,
390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles,
clothing, wood products

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for nearly 30% of
GDP, over 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal
products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp;
importer of wheat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on
small plots and used principally for local consumption; transshipment
point for cocaine

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.3 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $776 million

Currency: lempira (plural–lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1–2.00 (fixed rate); 3.50 parallel
exchange and black-market rate (October 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km 0.914-meter
gauge

Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise improved,
2,250 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

Ports: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine: 149 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 438,495
GRT/660,990 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 87 cargo, 12 refrigerated
cargo, 9 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 1 vehicle
carrier, 17 bulk; note–a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

Airports: 180 total, 140 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: improved, but still inadequate; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 35,100 telephones; stations–176 AM, no FM,
28 TV, 7 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

Defense Forces
Branches: Armed Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,222,858; 727,851 fit for military
service; 61,493 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.9% of GDP, or $82.5 million (1990 est.)
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Hong Kong
(colony of the UK)
Geography
Total area: 1,040 km2; land area: 990 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 30 km with China

Coastline: 733 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China
in 1997

Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from
spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

Land use: 7% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
12% forest and woodland; 79% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

People
Population: 5,759,990 (July 1990), growth rate 1.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: adjective–Hong Kong

Ethnic divisions: 98% Chinese, 2% other

Religion: 90% eclectic mixture of local religions, 10% Christian

Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 2,640,000; 35.8% manufacturing; 22.7% wholesale and retail
trade, restaurants and hotel, 17.1% services, 7.5% construction, 8.4% transport
and communications, 6.1% financing, insurance, and real estate (1986)

Organized labor: 15% of labor force (1986)

Government
Long-form name: none; abbreviated HK

Type: colony of the UK; scheduled to revert to China in 1997

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none (colony of the UK)

Independence: none (colony of the UK); the UK signed an agreement
with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to China on 1 July 1997;
in the joint declaration, China promises to respect Hong Kong’s existing
social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the
Executive Council

Legislative branch: Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government–Governor Sir David Clive WILSON (since 9 April 1987);
Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987)

Political parties: none

Suffrage: limited to about 71,000 professionals of electoral college and
functional constituencies

Elections:
Legislative Council–indirect elections last held 26 September 1985
(next to be held in September 1991)
seats–(58 total; 26 elected, 32 appointed)

Communists: 5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party of China

Other political or pressure groups: Federation of Trade Unions (Communist
controlled), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (Nationalist Chinese
dominated), Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of
Commerce (Communist controlled), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese
Manufacturers’ Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers’
Union, and several small pro-democracy groups.

Member of: ADB, ESCAP (associate member), GATT, IMO, INTERPOL, Multifiber
Arrangement, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as a British colony, the interests
of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK;
US–Consul General Donald M. ANDERSON; Consulate General at
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or
FPO San Francisco 96659-0002); telephone Õ852å (5) 239011

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks below a
crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon (representing China)
with another lion above the shield and a banner bearing the words
HONG KONG below the shield

Economy
Overview: Hong Kong has a free-market economy and is autonomous in
financial affairs. Natural resources are limited and food and raw materials must
be imported. Manufacturing is the backbone of the economy, accounting
for more than 20% of GDP, employing 36% of the labor force, and exporting about
90% of output. Real GDP growth averaged a remakable 8% in 1987-88, then
slowed to a respectable 3% in 1989. Unemployment, which has been declining since
the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues to put upward
pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term prospects remain
solid so long as major trading partners continue to be prosperous. The
crackdown in China in 1989 casts a long shadow over the longer term
economic outlook.

GDP: $57 billion, per capita $10,000; real growth rate 3% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1988)

Budget: $6.9 billion (FY89)

Exports: $63.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988), including reexports of
$22.9 billion;
commodities–clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear, electrical
appliances, watches and clocks, toys;
partners–US 31%, China 14%, FRG 8%, UK 6%, Japan 5%

Imports: $63.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum;
partners–China 31%, Japan 20%, Taiwan 9%, US 8%

External debt: $9.6 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 23,000 million kWh produced,
4,030 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics, toys,
watches, clocks

Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy products;
less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $141.2 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$899.8 million

Currency: Hong Kong dollar (plural–dollars);
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$–7.800 (March 1989),
7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985); note–linked to the
US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$ since 1985

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned

Highways: 1,100 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed stone,
or earth

Ports: Hong Kong

Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,391,102
GRT/7,430,337 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo,
10 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 10 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,
7 liquefied gas, 69 bulk; note–a flag of convenience registry; ships registered
in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are
registered elsewhere

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and
international services; 2,300,000 telephones; microwave transmission links and
extensive optical fiber transmission network; stations–6 AM, 6 FM, 4
TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) relay station and 1 British
Forces Broadcasting Service relay station; 2,500,000 radio receivers;
1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets);
satellite earth stations–1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international
submarine cables providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan,
Taiwan, Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

Defense Forces
Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Gurkha Brigade, Royal Navy,
Royal Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Police
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,703,890; 1,320,914 fit for military
service; 46,440 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.);
this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending the colony,
the remainder being paid by the UK

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
.pa
Howland Island
(territory of the US)
Geography
Total area: 1.6 km2; land area: 1.6 km2

Comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 6.4 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by
a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 95% other

Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines, and
low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh water;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds,
and marine wildlife; feral cats

Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

People
Population: uninhabited

Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval
attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but
abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish and
Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National
Wildlife Refuge System

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling stop on
the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan–they left Lae,
New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never seen again; the airstrip is no
longer serviceable

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the
middle of the west coast

Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast
that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since been rebuilt in
memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
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Hungary
Geography
Total area: 93,030 km2; land area: 92,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 2,251 km total; Austria 366 km, Czechoslovakia 676
km, Romania 443 km, USSR 135 km, Yugoslavia 631 km

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Disputes: Transylvania question with Romania; Nagymaros Dam
dispute with Czechoslovakia

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

Land use: 54% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 14% meadows and pastures;
18% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding occurs
almost every year

Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes
between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between USSR and
Mediterranean basin

People
Population: 10,568,686 (July 1990), growth rate – 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Hungarian(s); adjective–Hungarian

Ethnic divisions: 96.6% Hungarian, 1.6% German, 1.1% Slovak, 0.3%
Southern Slav, 0.2% Romanian

Religion: 67.5% Roman Catholic, 20.0% Calvinist, 5.0% Lutheran, 7.5%
atheist and other

Language: 98.2% Hungarian, 1.8% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,860,000; 43.2% services, trade, government, and other,
30.9% industry, 18.8% agriculture, 7.1% construction (1988)

Organized labor: 96.5% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian Trade
Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the government;
independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small independent unions
in operation

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Hungary

Type: republic

Capital: Budapest

Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular–megye) and
1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Sopron,
Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Komarom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar,
Szolnok, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I

Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April
1972 and 18 October 1989

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory, with both civil law system
(civil code of 1960) and common law elements; Supreme Court renders decisions of
principle that sometimes have the effect of declaring legislative acts
unconstitutional; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Liberation, 4 April (1945)

Executive branch: president, premier, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Orszaggyules)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President-designate Arpad GONCZ (since
2 May 1990);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL
(since 23 May 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Forum, Jozsef Antall,
chairman; Free Democrats, Janos Kis, chairman; Independent Smallholders,
Istvan Prepeliczay, president; Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Rezso
Nyers, chairman; Young Democrats; Christian Democrats, Sandor Keresztes,
president; note–the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers’ Party
(MSZMP) renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party
(MSP) in October 1989

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with
the second round held 8 April 1990);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(394 total) Democratic Forum 165, Free Democrats 92,
Independent Smallholders 43, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33,
Young Democrats 21, Christian Democrats 21, independent candidates
or jointly sponsored candidates 19; an additional 8 seats
will be given to representatives of minority nationalities

Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO,
ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Peter VARKONYI;
Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 362-6730;
there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador-designate Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag
Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone Õ36å
(1) 126-450

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

Economy
Overview: Hungary’s postwar Communist government spurred the movement
from a predominantly agricultural to an industrialized economy. The share
of the labor force in agriculture dropped from over 50% in 1950 to under
20% in 1989. Agriculture nevertheless remains an important sector,
providing sizable export earnings and meeting domestic food needs.
Industry accounts for about 40% of GNP and 30% of employment. Nearly
three-fourths of foreign trade is with the USSR and Eastern Europe. Low
rates of growth reflect the inability of the Soviet-style economy to
modernize capital plant and motivate workers. GNP grew about 1% in 1988
and declined by 1% in 1989. Since 1985 external debt has
more than doubled, to nearly $20 billion. In recent years Hungary has
moved further than any other East European country in experimenting with
decentralized and market-oriented enterprises. These experiments have
failed to jump-start the economy because of: limitations on funds for
privatization; continued subsidization of insolvent state enterprises;
and the leadership’s reluctance to implement sweeping market reforms
that would cause additional social dislocations in the short term.

GNP: $64.6 billion, per capita $6,108; real growth rate – 1.3%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $14.0 billion; expenditures $14.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $944 million (1988)

Exports: $19.1 billion (f.o.b. 1988);
commodities–capital goods 36%, foods 24%, consumer goods 18%, fuels
and minerals 11%, other 11%;
partners USSR 48%, Eastern Europe 25%, developed countries 16%,
less developed countries 8% (1987)

Imports: $18.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–machinery and transport 28%, fuels 20%, chemical
products 14%, manufactured consumer goods 16%, agriculture 6%, other
16%;
partners–USSR 43%, Eastern Europe 28%, less developed countries 23%,
US 3% (1987)

External debt: $19.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1988)

Electricity: 7,250,000 kW capacity; 30,300 million kWh produced,
2,870 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed foods,
textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)

Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GNP and 19% of
employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming; principal
crops–wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets;
livestock–hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in
food output

Aid: donor–$1.8 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1962-88)

Currency: forint (plural–forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

Exchange rates: forints (Ft) per US$1–62.5 (January 1990), 59.2 (1989),
50.413 (1988), 46.971 (1987), 45.832 (1986), 50.119 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 7,770 km total; 7,513 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
222 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.524-meter broad gauge; 1,138
km double track, 2,088 km electrified; all government owned (1987)

Highways: 130,000 km total; 29,701 km national highway
system–26,727 km asphalt and bitumen, 146 km concrete, 55 km stone and
road brick, 2,345 km macadam, 428 km unpaved; 58,495 km country roads
(66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70% unpaved) (1987)

Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,204 km; refined products, 600 km; natural gas,
3,800 km (1986)

Ports: Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube; maritime
outlets are Rostock (GDR), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland), Szczecin (Poland),
Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)

Merchant marine: 16 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 77,141
GRT/103,189 DWT

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations–13 AM, 11 FM, 21 TV; 8 Soviet TV relays;
3,500,000 TV sets; 5,500,000 receiver sets; at least 1 satellite earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Hungarian People’s Army, Frontier Guard, Air and Air Defense
Command

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,645,016; 2,112,651 fit for military
service; 86,481 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 43.7 billion forints, NA% of total budget (1989);
note–conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
.pa
Iceland
Geography
Total area: 103,000 km2; land area: 100,250 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,988 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Ireland,
and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall
area)

Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy
winters; damp, cool summers

Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks,
icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power,
diatomite

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 23% meadows and
pastures; 1% forest and woodland; 76% other

Environment: subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity

Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country

People
Population: 257,023 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Icelander(s); adjective–Icelandic

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians and
Celts

Religion: 95% Evangelical Lutheran, 3% other Protestant and Roman
Catholic, 2% no affiliation

Language: Icelandic

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 134,429; 55.4% commerce, finance, and services, 14.3% other
manufacturing, 5.8% agriculture, 7.9% fish processing, 5.0% fishing (1986)

Organized labor: 60% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Iceland

Type: republic

Capital: Reykjavik

Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular–sysla) and
14 independent towns* (kaupstadar, singular–kaupstadur); Akranes*, Akureyri*,
Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Austur-Hunavatnssysla,
Austur-Skaftafellssysla, Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla,
Eyjafjardharsysla, Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*,
Isafjordhur*, Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hanppadalssysla, Strandasysla,
Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*,
Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic,
17 June (1944)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Althing) with an Upper House
(Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1 August 1980);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Steingrimur HERMANNSSON (since 28
September 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Independence (conservative), Thorsteinn
Palsson; Progressive, Steingrimur Hermannsson; Social Democratic, Jon
Baldvin Hannibalsson; People’s Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar
Grimsson; Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius Solnes;
Women’s List

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President–last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June 1992);
results–there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President Vigdis
Finnbogadottir was unopposed;

Parliament–last held on 25 April 1987 (next to be held by
25 April 1991);
results–Independence 27.2%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.2%,
People’s Alliance 13.4%, Citizens Party 10.9%, Womens List 10.1%, other 4.3%;

seats–(63 total) Independence 18, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People’s Alliance 8, Citizens Party 7, Womens List 6, Regional Equality
Platform 1

Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the
People’s Alliance

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC (free trade agreement pending
resolution of fishing limits issue), EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICES,
IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC–International
Whaling Commission, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ingvi S. INGVARSSON; Chancery at
2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-6653
through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New York;
US–Ambassador Charles E. COBB; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21, Reykjavik
(mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone Õ354å (1) 29100

Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy
Overview: Iceland’s prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is basically
capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low unemployment, and
comparatively even distribution of income. The economy is heavily dependent on
the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75% of export earnings. In the
absence of other natural resources, Iceland’s economy is vulnerable to changing
world fish prices. National output declined for the second consecutive year in
1989, and two of the largest fish farms filed for bankruptcy. Other economic
activities include livestock raising and aluminum smelting. A fall in the fish
catch is expected for 1990, resulting in a continuation of the recession.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth rate – 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.4% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.3% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1988)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
diatomite;
partners–EC 58.9% (UK 23.3%, FRG 10.3%), US 13.6%,
USSR 3.6%

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, textiles;
partners–EC 58% (FRG 16%, Denmark 10.4%, UK 9.2%), US 8.5%,
USSR 3.9%

External debt: $1.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced,
20,780 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon production,
hydropower

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing); fishing is
most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75% to export earnings;
principal crops–potatoes and turnips; livestock–cattle, sheep; self-sufficient
in crops; fish catch of about 1.6 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1 million

Currency: krona (plural–kronur);
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1–60.751 (January 1990),
57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677 (1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km
bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth

Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik, Seydhisfjordhur,
Siglufjordur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,867
GRT/87,610 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft

Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio
communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations–10 AM, 17 (43 relays) FM,
14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

Defense Forces
Branches: Police, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 68,688; 61,553 fit for military service;
no conscription or compulsory military service

Defense expenditures: none
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India
Geography
Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km,
Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

Coastline: 7,000 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water
sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus

Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north

Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling
plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore,
manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds,
crude oil, limestone

Land use: 55% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
23% forest and woodland; 17% other; includes 13% irrigated

Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution;
desertification

Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

People
Population: 849,746,001 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Indian(s); adjective–Indian

Ethnic divisions: 72% Indo-Aryan, 25% Dravidian, 3% Mongoloid and other

Religion: 82.6% Hindu, 11.4% Muslim, 2.4% Christian, 2.0% Sikh, 0.7%
Buddhist, 0.5% Jains, 0.4% other

Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages–Bengali,
Telgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by
a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects,
for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language
and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status
but is the most important language for national, political, and
commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is
spoken widely throughout northern India

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)

Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of India

Type: federal republic

Capital: New Delhi

Administrative divisions: 24 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and
Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar,
Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Delhi*, Goa and Daman and Diu*,
Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir,
Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur,
Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal;
note–Goa may have become a state with Daman and Diu remaining a union
territory

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 January 1950

Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
26 January (1950)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an upper
house or Government Assembly (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or People’s
Assembly (Lok Sabha)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25 July
1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September 1987);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap SINGH
(since 2 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Janata Dal Party, Prime Minister
V. P. Singh; Congress (I) Party, Rajiv Gandhi; Bharatiya Janata Party,
L. K. Advani; Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara Rao;
Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. Namboodiripad;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan Singh;
All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK), a regional party
in Tamil Nadu, Jayalalitha; Dravida Munnetra Kazagham, M. Karunanidhi;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab;
Telugu Desam, a regional party in Andhra Pradesh, N. T. Rama Rao; National
Conference (NC), a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir, Farooq Abdullah;
Asom Gana Parishad, a regional party in Assam, Prafulla Mahanta

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
People’s Assembly–last held 22, 24, 26 November
1989 (next to be held by November 1994, subject to postponement);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(544 total), 525 elected–Congress (I) Party
193, Janata Dal Party 141, Bharatiya Janata Party 86, Communist
Party of India (Marxist) 32, independents 18, Communist Party of India
12, AIADMK 11, Akali Dal 6, Shiv Sena 4, RSP 4, Forward Bloc 3, BSP 3,
Telugu Desam 2, Congress (S) Party 1, others 9

Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed by
CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members

Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups seeking
greater communal autonomy; numerous senas or militant/chauvinistic
organizations, including Shiv Sena (in Bombay), Anand Marg, and Rashtriya
Swayamsevak Sangh

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANRPC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU,
IWC–International Wheat Council, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Abid HUSSEIN;
Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador William CLARK; Embassy at Shanti Path, Chanakyapuri
110021, New Delhi; telephone Õ91å (11) 600651; there are US Consulates General
in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with
a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; similar to
the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered in the white band

Economy
Overview: India’s Malthusian economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches
of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the
entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and
widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4%
to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth
on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural output
has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern farming techniques
and improved seed that have helped to make India self-sufficient in food grains
and a net agricultural exporter. However, tens of millions of villagers,
particularly in the south, have not benefited from the green
revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry has benefited from a
liberalization of controls. The growth rate of the service sector has
also been strong.

GNP: $333 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 5.0% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $48 billion; expenditures $53 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1989)

Exports: $17.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities–tea, coffee,
iron ore, fish products, manufactures;
partners–EC 25%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, US 19%, Japan 10%

Imports: $24.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities–petroleum,
edible oils, textiles, clothing, capital goods; partners–EC 33%,
Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and Eastern Europe 8%

External debt: $48.7 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.8% (1989)

Electricity: 59,000,000 kW capacity; 215,000 million kWh produced,
260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery, transportation
equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum, power,
chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics

Agriculture: accounts for about 33% of GNP and employs 67% of labor force;
self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops–rice, wheat, oilseeds, cotton,
jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; livestock–cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and
poultry; fish catch of about 3 million metric tons ranks India in the world’s
top 10 fishing nations

Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the
pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to international drug
markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics produced in
neighboring countries

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $18.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million; USSR (1970-88), $10.0 billion;
Eastern Europe (1970-88), $105 million

Currency: Indian rupee (plural–rupees);
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1–16.965 (January 1990),
16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611 (1986), 12.369 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad gauge,
24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter and
0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified

Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and
1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth

Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural gas,
902 km (1989)

Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore,
Port Blair (Andaman Islands)

Merchant marine: 296 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,855,842
GRT/9,790,260 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo, 95 cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 53 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,109 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

Airports: 345 total, 292 usable; 202 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 91 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international radio
communications adequate; 3,200,000 telephones; stations–170 AM, no FM, 14 TV
(government controlled); domestic satellite system for communications and TV;
3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine cables to Sri Lanka, Malaysia,
and Pakistan

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Security Forces, Coast Guard,
Paramilitary Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 227,436,282; 134,169,114 fit for military
service; about 9,403,063 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.6% of GNP, or $8.7 billion (FY90 est.)
.pa
Indian Ocean
Geography
Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of Bengal,
Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea, and other
tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the US;
third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but larger
than the Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 66,526 km

Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June
to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in
the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the south Indian Ocean

Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal of surface
currents in the north Indian Ocean–low pressure over southwest Asia from hot,
rising, summer air results in the southwest monsoon and southwest-to-northeast
winds and currents, while high pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling,
winter air results in the northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds
and currents; ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and
subdivided by the Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge,
and Ninety East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and
Red Sea

Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok Strait;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near Antarctica from
May to October

Economy
Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway
for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe
and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of growing
economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a source of both food
and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan also exploit
the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are
being tapped in the offshore areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western
Australia. An estimated 40% of the world’s offshore oil production comes from
the Indian Ocean. Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer
deposits are actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India,
South Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources, particularly
marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits

Communications
Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India),
Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia),
Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard’s Bay (South Africa)

Telecommunications: no submarine cables
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Indonesia
Geography
Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea
820 km

Coastline: 54,716 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: East Timor question with Portugal

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite,
copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use: 8% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited); occasional
floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation

Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea
lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People
Population: 190,136,221 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Indonesian(s); adjective–Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0%
Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26.0% other

Religion: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1%
other

Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); English
and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken
of which is Javanese

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 67,000,000; 55% agriculture, 10% manufacturing,
4% construction, 3% transport and communications (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular–propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular–daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**,
Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands
or Dutch East Indies)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note–the People’s Consultative Assembly
(Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly
elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and
vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on
functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Wahono, general chairman; Indonesia
Democracy Party (PDI–federation of former Nationalist and Christian
Parties), Soeryadi, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation
of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan Metareum, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Elections:
House of Representatives–last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results–Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats–(500 total–400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966;
current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized
activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries,
CCC, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston,
New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco;
US–Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone Õ62å (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the
flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is
white (top) and red

Economy
Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions
and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private
enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and
rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89
averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3
million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including
forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP
and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world’s
largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient.
Plantation crops–rubber and palm oil–are being encouraged for both
export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude
oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector
dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the
government’s revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989.
Japan is Indonesia’s most important customer and supplier of aid.

GNP: $80 billion, per capita $430; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

Exports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–petroleum
and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;
partners–Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

Imports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities–machinery
39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%;
partners–Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

External debt: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer
production, timber, food, rubber

Agriculture: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation
production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra,
other tropical products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $19.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$175 million

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural–rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1–1,804.9 (January 1990),
1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Communications
Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter
gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all
government owned

Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads

Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura
820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural gas,
1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,480,912
GRT/2,245,233 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
173 cargo, 6 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
77 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 24 bulk

Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

Airports: 468 total, 435 usable; 106 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 62 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage
good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations–618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations–1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,283,496; 29,137,291 fit for military
service; 2,098,169 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP (1987)
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Iran
Geography
Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman, median-line
boundaries in the Persian Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980–troop withdrawal,
freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and
prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three
islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa
or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb,
and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic disputes with
Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with Afghanistan
and Pakistan

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and
pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

People
Population: 55,647,001 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Iranian(s); adjective–Iranian

Ethnic divisions: 51% Persian, 25% Azerbaijani, 9% Kurd, 8% Gilaki
and Mazandarani, 2% Lur, 1% Baloch, 1% Arab, 3% other

Religion: 95% Shia Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim, 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai

Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

Literacy: 48% (est.)

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of
skilled labor (1988 est.)

Organized labor: none

Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular–ostan);
Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari,
Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan,
Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan,
Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan,
Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majlis-e-Shura-e-Islami)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Cleric and functional Chief of State–Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 3 June 1989);

Head of Government–President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August
1989);

Political parties and leaders: there are at least seven licensed
parties; the two most important are–Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi
Mahdavi-Karubi and Mohammad Asqar Musavi-Khoinima; Fedaiyin Islam
Organization, Sadeq Khalkhali

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President–last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results–Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was elected with only token opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly–last held 8 April and 13 May
1988 (next to be held April 1992); results–percent of vote by party
NA;
seats–(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders
began in late 1983 and remain incomplete

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
Following the Line of the Imam, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association;
Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO), People’s Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic
Party are armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by
the government

Member of: CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO,
WHO

Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria–Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;
US–protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the
top edge of the red band

Economy
Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan–the first since the revolution–passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. War-related disruptions, massive corruption,
mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological rigidities have kept
economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export
revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2%
drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in 1989, considerably
short of the 3.4% population growth rate in 1989. Heating oil and gasoline
are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages
of equipment and materials. The five-year plan seeks to reinvigorate the
economy by increasing the role of the private sector, boosting nonoil
income, and securing foreign loans. The plan is overly ambitious but
probably will generate some short-term relief.

GNP: $97.6 billion, per capita $1,800; real growth rate 0-1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50-80% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;
partners–Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $12.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities–machinery,
military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services,
refined oil products; partners–FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil
production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Agriculture: principal products–rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits,
nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $976 million; note–aid fell sharply
following the 1979 revolution

Currency: Iranian rial (plural–rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars;
note–domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman
(plural–tomans), which equals 10 rials

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1–70.019 (January 1990),
72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

Communications
Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter
gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas

Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone; 49,440 km
improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated surfaces;
1,200 km (est.) of rural road network

Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because
of Iran-Iraq war

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas,
3,300 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni,
Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting
during 1980-88 war)

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,631,836
GRT/8,662,454 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo,
49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 201 total, 175 usable; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 17
with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations–62 AM, 30 FM, 250 TV;
satellite earth stations–2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT;
HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and USSR

Defense Forces
Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force,
and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and
naval forces), Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,302,967; 7,332,614 fit for military
service; 569,647 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 8% of GNP, or $7.8 billion (1989 est.)
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Iraq
Geography
Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq – Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iraq began formal UN peace negotiations with Iran in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980–sovereignty over the Shatt
al Arab waterway, troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, and
prisoner of war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia–in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement
to divide the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified
before it becomes effective; disputes Kuwaiti ownership of Warbah and
Bubiyan islands; periodic disputes with upstream riparian
Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water
development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 75% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems contingent
upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water
pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

People
Population: 18,781,770 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Iraqi(s); adjective–Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: 75-80% Arab, 15-20% Kurdish, 5% Turkoman, Assyrian
or other

Religion: 97% Muslim (60-65% Shia, 32-37% Sunni), 3% Christian or other

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: 55-65% (1989 est.)

Labor force: 3,400,000 (1984); 39% services, 33% agriculture, 28%
industry, severe labor shortage (1987); expatriate labor force about
1,000,000 (1989)

Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

Type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular–muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, As Sulaymaniyah, At Tamim, Babil,
Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Arbil, Karbala,
Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution now in final stages of drafting

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law
system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary
Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government–President Saddam HUSAYN
(since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF
(since 21 April 1974)

Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly–last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results–Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Sunni Arabs 53%, Christians 2% est.;
seats–(250 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB–Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Mohamed Sadiq AL-MASHAT;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500;
US–Ambassador April C. GLASPIE; Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the
Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah,
Baghdad); telephone Õ964å (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Syria which has two stars
(in a horizontal line centered in the white band)–all green and five-pointed;
also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the
white band

Economy
Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central planning
and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving
some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides
about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Since the early 1980s financial
problems, caused by war expenditures and damage to oil export facilities by
Iran, have led the government to implement austerity measures and to reschedule
foreign debt payments. Oil exports have gradually increased with the
construction of new pipelines. Agricultural development remains hampered by
labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform
and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high
priority by the government, is under financial constraints. New investment funds
are generally allocated only to projects that result in import substitution or
foreign exchange earnings.

GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities–crude oil and refined products, machinery, chemicals, dates;
partners–US, Brazil, USSR, Italy, Turkey, France, Japan, Yugoslavia
(1988)

Imports: $10.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities–manufactures, food;
partners–Turkey, US, FRG, UK, France, Japan, Romania, Yugoslavia,
Brazil (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1988 est.), excluding debt to Persian
Gulf Arab states

Industrial production: NA%

Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food
processing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 10% of GNP but 33% of labor force;
principal products–wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit,
cotton, wool; livestock–cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $607
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-89), $37.2 billion; Communist countries
(1970-88), $3.9 billion

Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural–dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1–0.3109 (fixed rate since 1982)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications
Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 505 km
1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq
war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamers (of little
importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in sections by
shallow-draft vessels

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr

Merchant marine: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 947,721
GRT/1,703,988 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 18 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km natural
gas

Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)

Airports: 111 total, 101 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with
runways over 3,659 m; 53 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio relay
links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones; stations–9
AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations–1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik
system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey

Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, mobile
police force, Republican Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,097,190; 2,284,417 fit for military
service; 219,701 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
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Iraq – Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
Geography
Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

Coastline: none–landlocked

Maritime claims: none–landlocked

Climate: harsh, dry desert

Terrain: sandy desert

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (sandy desert)

Environment: harsh, inhospitable

Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait, and
Saudi Arabia

People
Population: uninhabited

Government
Long-form name: none

Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in July 1975,
Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to divide the zone between
them, but the agreement must be ratified, however, before it becomes
effective.

Economy
Overview: no economic activity

Communications
Highways: none; some secondary roads

Defense Forces
Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
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Ireland
Geography
Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundary: 360 km with UK

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with the UK; Northern Ireland question with
the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 71% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: deforestation

People
Population: 3,500,212 (July 1990), growth rate -0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: – 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun–Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective–Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Anglican, 2% other

Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally
used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,310,000; 57.3% services, 19.1% manufacturing and
construction, 14.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1988)

Organized labor: 36% of labor force

Government
Long-form name: Republic of Ireland

Type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick,
Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary,
Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: St. Patrick’s Day, 17 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State–President Dr. Patrick J. HILLERY (since 3 December
1976);

Head of Government–Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since 12 July
1989, the fourth time elected as prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, Charles Haughey;
Labor Party, Richard Spring; Fine Gael, Alan Dukes; Communist Party
of Ireland, Michael O’Riordan; Workers’ Party, Proinsias DeRossa;
Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O’Malley;
note–Prime Minister Haughey heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President–last held 21 October 1983 (next to be held October
1990); results–Dr. Patrick Hillery reelected;

Senate–last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
1992);
results–percent of vote by party NA;
seats–(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives–last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held
NA June 1994);
results–Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers’ Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats–(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers’ Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

Communists: under 500<