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Information On Various Water Filter Technologies

Newsgroups: rec.backcountry
From: eugene@amelia.nas.nasa.gov (Eugene N. Miya)
Subject: [l/m 9/25/92] Water filters & Giardia Distilled Wisdom (9/28) XYZ
Organization: NAS Program, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
Date: Sat, 9 Jan 93 12:20:20 GMT
Reply-To: tut@sun.com (Bill Tuthill)
Lines: 1461

Panel 9

a. (Title?)
[Comparison of filters, boiling and iodine]

Filters: First Need, Katadyn,
Iodine: PolarPure, Potable-Aqua

Bill Tuthill
1991 – 1992

Based on “Medicine for Mountaineering”, owner’s manuals and
personal experience of author

Memo from Center from Disease Control
Dennis D. Juranek
Chief, Epidemiology Activity
Parasitic Diseases Branch
Division of Parasitic Diseases
Centers for Disease Control

c. Back-country water treatment to prevent giardiasis.
American Journal of Public Health
December 1989, Vol 79, No 12, pp 1633-1637.
Copyright 1989 AJPH 0090-0036/89$1.50 [used without permission]
Filters: First Need, H2OK, Katadyn, Pocket Purifier, Water Purifier
Chemicals: Polar Pure, Coghlan’s Emergency Germicidal Drinking
Water Tablets, Potable Aqua, 2% iodine,
Sierra Water Purifier, Halazone, commercial liquid bleach
Jerry E. Ongerth, PhD, PE,
Ron L. Johnson,
Steven C Macdonald, MPH,
Floyd Frost, PhD,
Henry H. Stibbs, PhD

d. REI Water Filter Chart (2 similar articles)
Comparison of specs: pore size, weight, capacity, filter life,
cost/gallon, price, replacement cost,
Filters: Katadyn, MSR, PUR, First Need, Basic Designs, Timber Line


Copyright (c) 1991 by Bill Tuthill

Unpurified drinking water may contain four things that pose health risks:
protozoan parasites (e.g. giardia), toxic bacteria, harmful viruses, and
poisonous chemicals. Of the methods available in the field, only boiling
and iodine are entirely effective against the first three, and only charcoal
filtration is effective against the fourth.

The First Need(R) water filter is cheap (less than $40), but is effective
merely against protozoan parasites. Its .4 micron filter pores are smaller
than giardia cysts at 3.5 microns, but larger than some bacteria, such as
E. coli at .3 to .9 microns. The First Need’s charcoal canister is not big
enough to be effective against poisonous chemicals — you need a pound of
charcoal for this — so it just adds unnecessary weight, and provides a
potential haven for the growth of harmful bacteria. If you own a First Need
filter, flush it with iodine after each trip.

The Katadyn(R) water filter is expensive (over $200), but is completely
effective against bacteria as well as giardia. Moreover, it can be cleaned
after it clogs up. The Katadyn is effective at removing smaller bacteria
such as E. coli. However, its .2 micron filter is not effective against
any virus. If you travel abroad (to Nepal for example), you risk viral
infections such as Hepatitis A and Hepatitis non-A non-B, among others.

MSR has a new water filter, which may be superior to the Katadyn. Results
from the field aren’t in yet.

To be entirely safe, water should be boiled for at least five minutes.
Giardia is killed in less than a minute at 176 degrees, well under the
boiling point. Bacteria and viruses last somewhat longer, but are probably
killed in less than five minutes at 190 degrees. Some viruses may last
longer; nobody knows. At 10,000 feet water boils at 194 degrees; above
this altitude boil water about an extra minute for each 1000 feet.

If you have neither the time nor the inclination to boil water, iodine
is equally effective. After 15 minutes (30 minutes for very cold water),
a sufficient dose of iodine kills all protozoa, bacteria, and viruses.
One readily-available choice is Potable-Aqua(R) tablets. Dissolve one
tablet per liter of water (two tablets if cloudy) and wait. The problem
with iodine tablets is that they degrade upon contact with moisture, so
keep that bottle dry, and discard it upon returning home.

Avoid halazone and Clorox, because chlorine is volatile, slow to disinfect,
and works differently against protozoa and viruses at various pH levels.
It also reacts with organic compounds to form carcinogenic chloramines.

Iodine is not highly toxic, and in fact is an essential ingredient of
human nutrition. However, continuous ingestion of large doses may cause
health problems, so don’t iodinate all your water for more than a few
months at a time.

The accepted concentration for iodine disinfection is 8 milligrams per
liter, but this is mostly to get rid of protozoan parasites. A good way
to reduce overall iodine consumption and minimize that iodine flavor is
to filter first, then use a low concentration of iodine to get rid of
bacteria and viruses. For this, a concentration of .5 mg/L is deemed
adequate, so one capful of PolarPure or one Potable-Aqua tablet should
disinfect around 16 liters of lightly filtered water. The Timberline(R)
filter, with its 2 micron pores, is fine for removing protozoa.

Giardia has become a well-known, almost fashionable, outdoor hazard.
Many people who experience gastro-intestinal problems after drinking
bad water think they have contracted giardia. In many cases they have
contracted something else. Since the only FDA-approved treatment for
giardia (Flagyl) is very nasty, it’s wise to make sure you really have
giardia before taking Flagyl. Most low-grade bacterial infections go away
on their own, and Flagyl is ineffective against viral infections. One
alternative to Flagyl is quinacrine. In many parts of the world (Asia
for example) Tinidazole is available, and is preferable to Flagyl because
it is less toxic and quicker acting.

[This information based on “Medicine for Mountaineering”, various owner’s
pamphlets, and personal experience.]

Addedum 1992

A packet of information arrived recently from Recovery Engineering
in Minneapolis, which I’ll summarize as promised.

They have a new product, the Pur Scout, which I believe is destined
to replace the First Need as the most popular low-cost filter. It
has the same 1 micron filter plus iodine matrix as the Pur Explorer,
pumps a quart in 120 seconds, but weighs only 12 oz! Capacity is
200 gallons, twice the First Need, but its $60 cost is less than
twice as much. The Scout is not self-cleaning like the Explorer,
and is only half the speed, with 2/5 the filter life.

Unlike other water filters, all Pur products meet EPA’s purification
guidelines. No other filter does this, because no other filter can
remove viruses. Here is the abstract from a study done at U Arizona
on the Pur Tritek(tm) system:

“Three identical [Pur Traveller water filters] were evaluated
for their ability to inactivate/remove Klebsiella terrigena,
poliovirus type1, rotavirus SA-11, and Giardia lamblia cysts.
The units were operated according to the manufacturer’s
instructions until the designed lifetime of 100 gallons (378
liters) passed through. The units were challenged with [the
micro-organisms mentioned above] after a passage of 0, 50, 75
and 100 gallons. At the 75% lifetime challenge, ‘worst case’
water quality of 1500 mg/l dissolved solids, 10 mg/l organic
matter, 4 degrees C, with a turbidity of 30 NTU and a pH of 9
was used. For the 100% lifetime test the worst case water
quality at pH 5 was used. The units were also tested after
stagnation for 48 hours at the 50%, 75%, and 100% [stages].

“At 0 and 50% lifetime test points, > 99.9999% of the bacteria,
> 99.9% of the Giardia cysts, and > 99.99% of the test viruses
were removed. With worst case water two passages of the test
water through the units was required to achieve these same
removals. These units would comply with criteria guidelines
suggested by the US EPA…

“One passage of the pH 9 worst case water was not sufficient
to remove the Klebsiella terrigena and poliovirus type1 to
the required reduction. However, the required reduction [was]
achieved by passage of the test water through the units a
second time… Holding the water for 5 to 10 minutes after
it had passed through the units also resulted in a further
reduction of test bacteria and viruses.”

What is Klebsiella terrigena anyway? I assume it’s a bacteria, but
what disease does it cause? And what does NTU stand for? Also, is
parts per million (ppm) the same as milligrams per liter (mg/l)?
Here is the residual iodine in ppm after treatment:

cup1 cup2 cup3
0% .7 .7 .7
50% .6 .5 .6
75% .6 .6 .7
100% .7 .6 .8

This indicates that the filter still had plenty of life at 100 gallons.
It also indicates that there is enough residual iodine to kill off all
viruses and bacteria overnight (assuming ppm = mg/l). At these levels
some iodine taste may be present, which can be removed with the optional
charcoal filter. Since the charcoal filter also removes iodine, it
would be prudent to use it only when filtering good quality water above
5 degrees C. It’s a tradeoff, though: when travelling thru agricultural
areas, charcoal filtration helps remove pesticides and herbicides.

All in all, I’ve decided to trade in my Katadyn for a Pur Explorer. I
used an MSR last week on the Rogue, and liked its pump action and bottle
attachment, but it *did* start to clog. Anybody want to buy my Katadyn
(in excellent condition) for a mere $185? F*ck the Swiss.


OCR’ed memo from the Center from Disease Control:


GIARDIASIS: By Dennis D. Juranek, Chief, Epidemiology Activity
Parasitic Diseases Branch
Division of Parasitic Diseases
Centers for Disease Control

Transmission and Control


During the past fifteen years giardiasis has been recognized as one of the
most frequently occurring waterborne diseases in the United States (1).
Giardia lamblia have been discovered in the United States in places as far
apart as Estes Park, Colorado (near the Continental Divide); Missoula,
Montana; Wilkes-Barre, Scranton, and Hazleton, Pennsylvania; and Pittsfield
and Lawrence, Massachusetts just to name a few. In light of recent large
outbreaks of waterborne giardiasis, it seem timely to present reliable
information on the way in which giardiasis is acquired, treated, and

Giardiasis: Prevalence and Symptoms

Giardiasis is a disease caused by a one-celled parasite with the scientific
name Giardia lamblia. The disease is characterized by intestinal symptoms
that usually last one week or more and may be accompanied by one or more of
the following: diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, flatulence, fatigue, and
weight loss (see Table 1). Although vomiting and fever are listed in Table 1
as relatively frequent symptoms, they have been uncommonly reported by people
involved in waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis in the United States. Table 1
also suggests that 13 percent of patients with giardiasis may have blood in
their stool. Giardia, however, rarely causes intestinal bleeding. Therefore,
blood in the stool of a patient with giardiasis almost always indicates the
presence of a second disease.

While most Giardia infections persist only for one or two months, some people
undergo a more chronic phase, which can follow the acute phase or may become
manifest without an antecedent acute illness. The chronic phase is
characterized by loose stools, and increased abdominal gassiness with
cramping, flatulence and burping. Fever is not common, but malaise, fatigue,
and depression may ensue (2). For a small number of people, the persistence of
infection is associated with the development of marked malabsorption and
weight loss (3). Similarly, lactose (milk) intolerance can be a problem for
some people. This can develop coincidentally with the infection or be
aggravated by it, causing an increase in intestinal symptoms after ingestion
of milk products.

Some people may have several of these symptoms without evidence of diarrhea or
have only sporadic episodes of diarrhea every 3 or 4 days. Still others may
not have any symptoms at all. Therefore, the problem may not be whether you
are infected with the parasite or not, but how harmoniously you both can live
together, or how to get rid of the parasite (either spontaneously or by
treatment) when the harmony does not exist or is lost.

Medical Treatment

Three drugs are available in the United States to treat giardiasis: quinacrine
(Atabrine*), metronidazole (Flagyl*), and furazolidone (Furoxone*). All are
prescription drugs. In a recent review of drug trials in which the efficacies
of these drugs were compared, quinacrine produced a cure in 93% of 129
patients, metronidazole cured 92% of 219, and furazolidone cured 84% of 150
patients (4). Quinacrine is generally the least expensive of the anti-Giardia
medications but it often causes vomiting in children younger than 5 years
old. Although the treatment of giardiasis is not an FDA-approved indication
for metronidazole, the drug is commonly used for this purpose. Furazolidone
is the least effective of the three drugs, but is the only anti-Giardia
medication that comes as a liquid preparation, which makes it easier to
deliver the exact dose to small children and makes it the most convenient
dosage form for children who have difficulty taking pills. Cases of chronic
giardiasis refractory to repeated courses of therapy have been noted, one of
which responded to combined quinacrine and metronidazole treatment (5).

(*) Use of trade names is for purposes of identification only.

Etiology and Epidemiology

Giardiasis occurs worldwide. In the United States, Giardia is the parasite
most commonly identified in stool specimens submitted to state laboratories
for parasitologic examination. From 1977 through 1979, approximately 4% of 1
million stool specimens submitted to state laboratories were positive for
Giardia (6). Other surveys have demonstrated Giardia prevalence rates ranging
from 1 to 20% depending on the location and ages of persons studied.
Giardiasis ranks among the top 20 infectious diseases that cause the greatest
morbidity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (7); it has been estimated that
about 2 million infections occur per year in these regions (8).

People who are at highest risk for acquiring a Giardia infection in the United
States may be placed into five major categories:

1) People in cities whose drinking water originates from streams or
rivers and whose water treatment process does not include
filtration, or filtration is ineffective because of malfunctioning
2) Hikers/campers/outdoorspeople.
3) International travelers
4) Children who attend day-care centers, day-care center staff, and
parents and siblings of children infected in day-care centers.
5) Homosexual men.

People in categories 1, 2, and 3 have in common the same general source of
infections, i.e., they acquire Giardia from fecally contaminated drinking
water. The city resident usually becomes infected because the municipal water
treatment process does not include a filter that is necessary to physically
remove the parasite from the water. The number of people in the United States
at risk (i.e., the number who receive municipal drinking water from unfiltered
surface water) is estimated to be 20 million. International travelers may
also acquire the parasite from improperly treated municipal waters in cities
or villages in other parts of the world, particularly in developing
countries. In Eurasia, only travelers to Leningrad appear to be at increased
risk. In prospective studies, 88% of U.S. and 35% of Finnish travelers to
Leningrad who had negative stool tests for Giardia on departure to the Soviet
Union developed symptoms of giardiasis and had positive tests for Giardia
after they returned home (10,11). With the exception of visitors to Leningrad,
however, Giardia has not been implicated as a major cause of traveler’s
diarrhea. The parasite has been detected in fewer than 2% of travelers who
develop diarrhea. Hikers and campers risk infection every time they drink
untreated raw water from a stream or river.

Persons in categories 4 and 5 become exposed through more direct contact with
feces of an infected person, e.g., exposure to soiled diapers of an infected
child (day-care center-associated cases), or through direct or indirect
anal-oral sexual practices in the case of homosexual men.

Although community waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have received the
greatest publicity in the United States during the past decade, about half of
the Giardia cases discussed with staff of the Centers for Disease Control in
the past 2 to 3 years have a day-care center exposure as the most likely
source of infection. Numerous outbreaks of Giardia in day-care centers have
been reported in recent years. Infection rates for children in day-care
center outbreaks range from 21 to 44% in the United states and from 8 to 27%
in Canada (12,13,14,15,16,17). The highest infection rates are usually
observed in children who wear diapers (l to 3 years of age). In one study of
18 randomly selected day care centers in Atlanta (CDC unpublished data), 10%
of diapered children were found infected. Transmission from this age group to
older children, day-care staff, and household contacts is also common. About
20% of parents caring for an infected child will come infected.

It is important that local health officials and managers of water utility
companies realize that sources of Giardia infection other than municipal
drinking water exist. Armed with this knowledge, they are less likely to make
a quick (and sometimes wrong) assumption that a cluster of recently diagnosed
cases in a city is related to municipal drinking water. Of course, drinking
water must not be ruled out as a source of infection when a larger than
expected number of cases are recognized in a community, but the possibility
that the cases are associated with a day-care center outbreak, drinking
untreated stream water, or international travel should also be

Parasite Biology

To understand the finer aspects of Giardia transmission and the strategies for
control, one must become familiar with several aspects of the parasite’s
biology. Two forms of the parasite exist: a trophozoite and a cyst, both of
which are much larger than bacteria (see Figure 1). Trophozoites live in the
upper small intestine where they attach to the intestinal wall by means of a
disc-shaped suction pad on their ventral surface. Trophozoites actively feed
and reproduce at this location. At some time during the trophozoite’s life,
it releases its hold on the bowel wall and floats in the fecal stream through
the intestine. As it makes this journey, it undergoes a morphologic
transformation into an egglike structure called a cyst. The cyst, which is
about 6 to 9 micrometers in diameter x 8 to 12 micrometers (1/100 millimeter)
in length, has a thick exterior wall that protects the parasite against the
harsh elements that it will encounter outside the body. This cyst form of the
parasite is infectious for other people or animals. Most people become
infected either directly by hand-to-mouth transfer of cysts from the feces of
an infected individual, or indirectly by drinking feces-contaminated water.
Less common modes of transmission included ingestion of fecally contaminated
food and hand-to-mouth transfer of cysts after touching a fecally contaminated
surface. After the cyst is swallowed, the trophozoite is liberated through
the action of stomach acid and digestive enzymes and becomes established in
the small intestine.

Although infection after the ingestion of only one Giardia cyst is
theoretically possible, the minimum number of cysts shown to infect a human
under experimental conditions is ten (18). Trophozoites divide by binary
fission about every 12 hours. What this means in practical terms that if a
person swallowed only a single cyst, reproduction at this rate would result in
more than 1 million parasites 10 days later, and 1 billion parasites by day 15.

The exact mechanism by which Giardia causes illness is not yet well
understood, but is not necessarily related to the number of organisms
present. Nearly all of the symptoms, however, are related to dysfunction of
the gastrointestinal tract. The parasite rarely invades other parts of the
body, such as the gall bladder or pancreatic ducts. Intestinal infection does
not result in permanent damage.


Data reported to the CDC indicate that Giardia is the most frequently
identified cause of diarrheal outbreaks associated with drinking water in the
United States. The remainder of this article will be devoted to waterborne
transmission of Giardia. Waterborne epidemics of giardiasis are a relatively
frequent occurrence. In 1983, for example, Giardia was identified as the
cause of diarrhea in 68% of waterborne outbreaks in which the causal agent was
identified (19). From 1965 to 1982, more than 50 waterborne outbreaks were
reported (20). In 1984, about 250,000 people in Pennsylvania were advised to
boil drinking water for 6 months because of Giardia-contaminated water.
Many of the municipal waterborne outbreaks of Giardia have been subjected to
intense study to determine their cause. Several general conclusions can be
made from data obtained in those studies. Waterborne transmission of Giardia
in the United States usually occurs in mountainous regions where community
drinking water is obtained from clear running streams, is chlorinated but is
not filtered before distribution. Although mountain streams appear to be
clean, fecal contamination upstream by human residents or visitors, as well as
by Giardia-infected animals such as beavers, has been well documented. It is
worth emphasizing that water obtained from deep wells is an unlikely source of
Giardia because of the natural filtration of water as it percolates through
the soil to reach underground cisterns. Well-water sources that pose the
greatest risk of fecal contamination are those that are poorly constructed or
improperly located. A few outbreaks have occurred in towns that included
filtration in the water treatment process, but the filtration was not
effective in removing Giardia cysts because of defects in filter construction,
poor maintenance of the filter media, or inadequate pretreatment of the water
before it was filtered. Occasional outbreaks have also occurred because of
accidental cross-connections between water and sewerage systems.

One can conclude from these data that two major ingredients are necessary for
waterborne outbreak. First, there must be Giardia cysts in untreated source
water and, second, the water purification process must either fail to kill or
fail to remove Giardia cysts from the water.

Although beavers are often blamed for contaminating water with Giardia cysts,
it seems unlikely that they are responsible for introducing the parasite into
new areas. It is far more likely that they are also victims: Giardia cysts
may be carried in untreated human sewage discharged into the water by
small-town sewage disposal plants or originate from cabin toilets that drain
directly into streams and rivers. Backpackers, campers, and sports
enthusiasts may also deposit Giardia-contaminated feces in the environment
that are subsequently washed into streams by rain. In support of this concept
is a growing amount of data that indicate a higher Giardia infection rate in
beavers living downstream from U.S. National Forest campgrounds compared with
a near zero rate of infection in beavers living in more remote areas.

Although beavers may be unwitting victims in the Giardia story, they still
play an important part in the transmission scheme, because they can (and
probably do) serve as amplifying hosts. An amplifying host is one that is
easy to infect, serves as a good habitat for the parasite to reproduce, and,
in the case of Giardia, returns millions of cysts to the water for every one
ingested. Beavers are especially important in this regard because they tend
to defecate in or very near the water, which ensures that most of the Giardia
cysts excreted are returned to the water

The contribution of other animals to waterborne outbreaks of Giardia is less
clear. Muskrats (another semiaquatic animal) have been found in several parts
of the United States to have high infection rates (30 to 40%) (2l). Recent
studies have shown that muskrats can be infected with Giardia cysts obtained
from humans and beavers. Occasional Giardia infections have been reported in
coyotes, deer, elk, cattle, dogs, and cats, but not in horses and sheep,
encountered in mountainous regions of the United States. Naturally occurring
Giardia infections have not been found in most other wild animals (bear,
nutria, rabbit, squirrel, badger, marmot, skunk, ferret, porcupine, mink,
raccoon, river otter, bobcat, lynx, moose, bighorn sheep) (22).

Removal from Municipal Water Supplies

During the past 10 years, scientific knowledge about what is required to kill
or remove Giardia cysts from a contaminated water supply has increased
considerably. For example, it is known that cysts can survive in cold water
(4 deg C) for at least 2 months and that they are killed instantaneously by
boiling water (100 deg C) (23,24). It is not known how long the cysts
will remain viable at other water temperatures (e.g., at 0 deg C or in a
canteen at 15-20 deg C), nor is it known how long the parasite will survive
on various environment surfaces, e.g., under a pine tree, in the sun,
on a diaper-changing table, or in carpets in a day-care center.

The effect of chemical disinfection, such as chlorine, on the viability of
Giardia cysts is an even more complex issue. It is clear from the number of
waterborne outbreaks of Giardia that have occurred in communities where
chlorine was employed as a disinfectant that the amount of chlorine used
routinely for municipal water treatment is not effective against Giardia
cysts. These observations have been confirmed in the laboratory under
experimental conditions (25,26,27). This does not mean, however, that chlorine
does not work at all. It does work under certain favorable conditions.
Without getting too technical, one can gain some appreciation of the problem
by understanding a few of the variables that influence the efficacy of
chlorine as a disinfectant.

1) Water pH: at pH values above 7.5, the disinfectant capability of
chlorine is greatly reduced.
2) Water temperature: the warmer the water, the higher the efficacy.
Thus, chlorine does not work well in ice-cold water from mountain
3) Organic content of the water: mud, decayed vegetation, or other
suspended organic debris in water chemically combines with chlorine
making it unavailable as a disinfectant.
4) Chlorine contact time: the longer Giardia cysts are exposed to
chlorine, the more likely it is that the chemical will kill them.
5) Chlorine concentration: the higher the chlorine concentration, the
more likely chlorine will kill Giardia cysts. Most water treatment
facilities try to add enough chlorine to give a free (unbound)
chlorine residual at the customer tap of 0.5 mg per liter of water.

The five variables above are so closely interrelated that an unfavorable
occurrence in one can often be compensated for by improving another. For
example, if chlorine efficacy is expected to be low because water is obtained
from an icy stream, either the chlorine contact time or chlorine
concentration, or both could be increased. In the case of
Giardia-contaminated water, it might be possible to produce safe drinking
water with a chlorine concentration of 1 mg per liter and a contact time as
short as 10 minutes if all the other variables were optimal (i.e., pH of 7.0,
water temperature of 25 deg C, and a total organic content of the water close to
zero). On the other hand, if all of these variables were unfavorable (i.e.,
pH of 7.9, water temperature of 5 deg C, and high organic content), chlorine
concentrations in excess of 8 mg per liter with several hours of contact time
may not be consistently effective. Because water conditions and water
treatment plant operations (especially those related to water retention time
and, therefore, to chlorine contact time) vary considerably in different parts
of the United States, neither the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nor the
CDC has been able to identify a chlorine concentration that would be safe yet
effective against Giardia cysts under all water conditions. Therefore, the
use of chlorine as a preventive measure against waterborne giardiasis
generally has been used under outbreak conditions when the amount of chlorine
and contact time have been tailored to fit specific water conditions and the
existing operational design of the water utility.

In an outbreak, for example, the local health department and water utility may
issue an advisory to boil water, may increase the chlorine residual at the
consumer’s tap from 0.5 mg per liter to 1 or 2 mg per liter, and, if the
physical layout and operation of the water treatment facility permit, increase
the chlorine contact time. These are emergency procedures intended to reduce
the risk of transmission until a filtration device can be installed or
repaired or until an alternative source of safe water, such as a well, can be
made operational.

The long-term solution to the problem of municipal waterborne outbreaks of
giardiasis will involve improvements in and more widespread use of filters in
the municipal water treatment process. The sand filters most commonly used in
municipal water treatment today cost millions of dollars to install, which
makes them unattractive for many small communities. Moreover, the pore sizes
in these filters are not sufficiently small to remove a Giardia (6 to 9
micrometers x 8 to 12 micrometers). For the sand filter to remove Giardia
cysts from the water effectively, the water must receive some additional
treatment before it reaches the filter. In addition, the flow of water
through the filter bed must be carefully regulated.

An ideal prefilter treatment for muddy water would include sedimentation (a
holding pond where the large suspended particles are allowed to settle out by
the action of gravity) followed by flocculation or coagulation (the addition
of chemicals such as alum or ammonium to cause microscopic particles to clump
together). The large particles resulting from the flocculation/coagulation
process, including Giardia cysts bound to other microparticulates, are easily
removed by the sand filter. Chlorine is then added to kill the bacteria and
viruses that may escape the filtration process. If the water comes from a
relatively clear source, chlorine may be added to the water before it reaches
the filter. The point here is that successful operation of a complete water
treatment facility is a complex process that requires considerable training.
Troubleshooting breakdowns or recognizing potential problems in the system
before they occur often requires the skills of an engineer. Unfortunately,
most small water utilities that have a water treatment facility that includes
filtration cannot afford the services of a full-time engineer. Filter
operation or maintenance problems in such systems may not be detected until a
Giardia outbreak is recognized in the community. The bottom line is that
although, in reference to municipal systems, water filtration is the best that
water treatment technology has to offer against waterborne giardiasis, it is
not infallible. For municipal water filtration facilities to work properly,
they must be properly constructed, operated, and maintained.

Water Disinfection in the Out-of-Doors

Whenever possible, persons in the out-of-doors should carry drinking water of
known purity with them. When this is not practical, and water from streams,
lakes, ponds, and other outdoor sources must be used, time should be taken to
disinfect the water before drinking it.


Boiling water is one of the simplest and most effective ways to purify water.
Boiling for 1 minute is adequate to kill Giardia as well as most other
bacterial or viral pathogens likely to be acquired from drinking polluted

Chemical Disinfection

Disinfection of water with chlorine or iodine is considered less reliable than
boiling for killing Giardia. However, it is recognized that boiling drinking
water is not practical under many circumstances. Therefore, when one cannot
boil drinking water, chemical disinfectants such as iodine or chlorine should
be used. This will provide some protection against Giardia and will destroy
most bacteria and viruses that cause illness. Iodine or chlorine concentrations
of 8 mg/liter (8ppm) with a minimum contact time of 30 minutes are recommended.
If the water is cold (less than 10 deg C or 5O deg F) we suggest a minimum
contact time of 60 minutes. If you have a choice of disinfectants, use iodine.
Iodine’s disinfectant activity is less likely to be reduced by unfavorable
water conditions, such as dissolved organic material in water or by water with
a high pH, than chlorine.

Below are instructions for disinfecting water using household tincture of
iodine or chlorine bleach. If water is visibly dirty, it should first be
strained through a clean cloth into a container to remove any sediment or
floating matter. Then the water should be treated with chemicals as follows:


Tincture of iodine from the medicine chest or first aid kit can be used to
treat water. Mix thoroughly by stirring or shaking water in container and let
stand for 30 minutes.

Tincture of Iodine Drops* to be Added per Quart or Liter
Clear Water Cold or Cloudy Water**

2% 5 10

* 1 drop = 0.05ml

** Very turbid or very cold water may require prolonged contact time; let
stand up to several hours or even overnight.


Liquid chlorine bleach used for washing clothes usually has 4% to 6% available
chlorine. The label should be read to find the percentage of chlorine in the
solution and the treatment schedule below should be followed.

Drops* to be Added per Quart or Liter
Available Chlorine Clear Water Cold or Cloudy Water**

1% 10 20
4% to 6% 2 4
7% to lO% 1 2
Unknown 10 20

* 1 drop = 0.05ml

** Very turbid or very cold water may require prolonged contact time; let
stand up to several hours or even overnight.

Mix thoroughly by stirring or shaking water in container and let stand for 30
minutes. A slight chlorine odor should be detectable in the water; if not,
repeat the dosage and let stand for an additional 15 minutes before using.


Newcomers in the battle against waterborne giardiasis include a variety
of portable filters for field or individual use as well as some household
filters. Manufacturers’ data accompanying these filters indicate that some
can remove particles the size of a Giardia cyst or smaller and may be capable
of providing a source of safe drinking water for an individual or family
during a waterborne outbreak. Such devices, if carefully selected, might also
be useful in preventing giardiasis in international travelers, backpackers,
campers, sportsmen, or persons who live or work in areas where water is known
to be contaminated.

Unfortunately, there are yet few published reports in the scientific
literature detailing both the methods used and the results of tests employed
to evaluate the efficacy of these filters against Giardia. Until more
published experimental data become available, there are a few common sense
things that a consumer should look for when selecting a portable or household
filter. The first thing to consider is the filter media. Filters relying
solely on ordinary or silver-impregnated carbon or charcoal should be avoided,
because they are not intended to prevent, destroy, or repel micro-organisms.
Their principal use is to remove undesirable chemicals, odors, and very large
particles such as rust or dirt.

Some filters rely on chemicals such as iodide-impregnated resins to kill
Giardia. While properly designed and manufactured iodide-impregnated resin
filters have been shown to kill many species of bacteria and virus present in
human feces, their efficacy against Giardia cysts is less well-established.
The principle under which these filters operate is similar to that achieved by
adding the chemical disinfectant iodine to water, except that the
micro-organisms in the water pass over the iodide-impregnated disinfectant as
the water flows through the filter.

While the disinfectant activity of iodide is not as readily affected as
chlorine by water pH or organic content, iodide disinfectant activity is
markedly reduced by cold water temperatures. Experiments on Giardia indicate
that many of the cysts in cold water (4 deg C) remain viable after passage
through filters containing tri-iodide or penta-iodide disinfectants (28). As
indicated earlier, longer contact times (compared to those required to kill
bacteria) are required when using chemical filters to process cold water for
Giardia protection. Presently available chemical filters also are not
recommended for muddy or very turbid water. Additionally, filters relying
solely on chemical action usually give no indication to the user when
disinfectant activity has been depleted.

The so-called microstrainer types of filters are true filters. Manufacturer
data accompanying these filters indicate that some have a sufficiently small
pore size to physically restrict the passage of some micro-organisms through
the filter. The types of filter media employed in microstraining filters
include orlon, ceramic, and proprietary materials. Theoretically, a filter
having an absolute pore size of less than 6 micrometers might be able to
prevent Giardia cysts of 8 to 10 micrometers in diameter from passing.
However, when used as a water sampling device during community outbreaks,
portable filters in the 1- to 3- micrometer range more effectively removed
Giardia cysts from raw water than filters with larger pore sizes. For
effective removal of bacterial or viral organisms which cause disease in
humans, microstraining filters with pore sizes of less than 1 micrometer are
advisable. However, the smaller the pores, the more quickly the filters will
tend to clog. To obtain maximum filter life, and as a matter of reasonable
precaution, the cleanest available water source should always be used. Keep
in mind, however, that even sparkling, clear mountain streams can be heavily

Secondly, because infectious organisms can be concentrated on the filter
element/media, it is important to consider whether the filter element can be
cleaned or replaced without posing a significant health hazard to the user.
Properly engineered portable filters should also minimize the possibility of
contaminating the “clean water side” of the filter with contaminated water
during replacement or cleaning of the filter element. This is especially
important for filters used in the field where they are often rinsed or
“cleaned” in a stream or river that may be contaminated.

Ongerth (29) recently evaluated four filters (First Need, H20K, Katadyn, the
Pockett Purifier) for their ability to remove Giardia cysts from water. Only
the First Need and Katadyn filters removed 100% of the cysts.


In conclusion, during the past fifteen years, giardiasis has been recognized
as one of the most frequently occurring waterborne diseases in the United
States. The most common sources of water contamination include improperly
treated municipal sewage, infected animals, and indiscriminate defecation by
outdoorsmen. Chlorine concentrations in the 0.1 mg per liter to 0.5 mg per
liter range are largely ineffective against Giardia at the contact times
commonly employed by municipal water utilities. The long-term solution to the
problem of municipal waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis will involve
appropriate pretreatment combined with improvements in and more widespread use
of filters in the municipal water treatment process. While both micrometer-
and submicrometer-rated filters are being employed on a limited scale for
personal or household use, further evaluation of the efficacy of filters
distributed by different manufacturers is needed to enable individuals and
public health personnel to distinguish those that are safe and effective from
those that are not.

Percentage Number
of Patients


Diarrhea* 84 516
Malaise 80 56
Weakness 72 324
Abdominal cramps 63 412
Weight loss (O.5 – 11 kg) 63 412
Greasy, foul smelling stools 59 412
Nausea 57 444
Headaches 53 92
Anorexia 49 156
Abdominal bloating 45 380
Flatulence 41 388
Constipation 25 88
Vomiting 24 488
Fever 22 32

Physical finding

Abdomen tender to palpitation 66 92

Laboratory findings
Anemia 15 124
Leukocytosis 9 32

Increased mucus 56 32
Increased neutral fats 50 32
Blood 13 156

* Index symptom; may be biased (upward)

TABLE 1 – Based on data from Fifty diseases: Fifty Diagnoses, by M.G. Periroth
and D.J. Weiland.
Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1981, pp. 158-159. Reprinted by
special arrangement with Year Book Publishers, Inc.


1. Craun, Gunther T. Waterborne Giardiasis in the United States: A review.
American Journal of Public Health 69:817-819, 1979.

2. Weller, Peter F. Intestinal Protozoa: Giardiasis. Scientific American
Medicine, 1985

3. Id. 2.

4. Davidson, R.A. Issues in Clinical Parasitology: The treatment of Giardiasis.
Am J. Gastroenterol. 79:256-261, 2984

5. Id. 2.

6. Intestinal Parasite Surveillance, Annual Summary 1978, Atlanta, Centers for
Disease Control, 1979.

7. Walsh, J.D. Warren K. s. Selective Primary Health Care: An Interim Strategy
for Disease Control in developing countries. N. Engl. J. Med., 301:967-974,

8. Walsh, J.A. Estimating the Burden of Illness in the Tropics, In Tropical and
Geographic Medicine, Edited by K.S. Warren and A.F. Mahmoud, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1981, pp 1073-1085.

9. Weniger, B.D., Blaser, MlJ., Gedrose, J., Lippy, E.C., Juranek, D.D. an
Outbreak of Waterborne Giardiasis Associated with Heavy Water Runoff due to
Warm Weather and Volcanic Ashfall. Am. J. Public Health 78:868-872, 1983.

10. Brodsky, R.E., Spencer, H.C., Schultz, M.G. Giardiasis in American
Travelers to the Soviet Union. J. Infect Dis. 130:319-323, 1974.

11. Jokipii, L., Jokipii, A.M.M. Giardiasis in Travelers: A prospective Study.
J. Infect. Dis., 130:295-299, 1974.

12. Black, R.E., Dykes, A.C., Anderson, K.E., Wells, J.G., Sinclair, S.P.,
Gary, G.W., Hatch, M.H., Gnagarosa, E.J. Handwashing to Prevent Diarrhea in
Day-Care Centers. Am. J. Epidemiol. 113:445-451, 1981.

13. Pickering, L.K., Woodward, W.E., DuPont, H. L., Sullivan, P. Occurrence of
Giardia lamblia in Children in Day Care Centers. J. Pediatr. 104:522-526,

14. Sealy, D.P., Schuman, S.H. Endemic Giardiasis and Day Care. Pediatrics
72:154-158, 1983.

15. Pickering, L.K., Evans, D.G., DuPont, H.L., Vollet, J.J., III, Evans, D.J.,
Jr. diarrhea Caused by Shigella, Rotavirus, and Giardia in Day-care
Centers: Prospective Study. J. Peidatr., 99:51-56, 1981.

16. Keystone, J.S., Yang, J., Grisdale, D., Harrington, M., Pillow, L.,
Andreychuk, R. Intestinal Parasites in Metropolitan Toronto Day-Care
Centres. Can J. Assoc. J. 131:733-735, 1984.

17. Keystone, J.S., Kraden, S., Warren, M.R. Person-to-Person Transmission of
Giardia lamblia in Day-Care Nurseries. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 119:241-242,
247-248, 1978.

18. Rendtorff, R.C. The Experimental Transmission of Human Intestinal Protozoan
Parasites. II. Giardia lamblia cysts Given In Capsules, Am. J. Hygiene
59:209-220, 1954.

19. Water-related Disease Outbreaks Surveillance, Annual Summary 1983. Atlanta,
Centers for Disease Control, 1984.

20. Craun, G.F. Waterborne Outbreaks of Giardiasis–Current Status in Giardia
and Giardiasis, edited by S.L. Erlandsen and E.A Meyer. Pleunu Press. New
York, 1984, pp 243-261.

21. Frost, F. Plan, B., Liechty, B. Giardia Prevalence in Commercially Trapped
Mammals. J. Environ. Health 42:245-249.

22. Id. 21.

23. Id. 18.

24. Bingham, A.K., Jarroll, E.L., Meyer, E.A. Radulescu, S. Introduction of
Giardia Excystation and the effect of Temperature on cyst Viability
compared by Eosin-Exclusion and In Vitro Excystation in Waterborne
Transmission of Giardiasis. Edited by J. Jakubowski and H. C. Hoff, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1979, pp. 217-229.

25. Jarroll, E.L., Bingham, A.K., Meyer, E.A. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia
lamblia Cyst Viability. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:483-487, 1981.

26. Jarroll, E.L., Jr., Bingham, A.K. Meyer, E.A. Inability of an Iodination
Method to Destroy completely Giardia Cysts in Cold Water. West J. Med.
132:567-569, 1980.

27. Jarroll, E.L., Jr., Bingham, A.K., Meyer, E.A. Giardia Cyst Destruction:
Effectiveness of Six Small-Quantity Water Disinfection Methods. Am. J.
Trop. Med. Hygiene 29:8-11, 1980.

28. Marchin, B.L., Fina, L.R., Lambert, J.L., Fina, G.T. Effect of resin
disinfectants–13 and –15 on Giardia muris and giardia lamblia. Appl
Environ. Microbiol. 46:965-9, 1983.

29. Ongerth JE, Johnson RL, Macdonald SC, Frost F, Stibbs HH. Back-country
water treatment to prevent giardiasis. Am J Public Health


Back-country water treatment to prevent giardiasis.
Jerry E. Ongerth, PhD, PE, Ron L. Johnson, Steven C Macdonald, MPH, Floyd Frost,
PhD, and Henry H. Stibbs, PhD

American Journal of Public Health December 1989, Vol 79, No 12, pp 1633-1637.

Copyright 1989 AJPH 0090-0036/89$1.50 [used without permission]


This study was conducted to provide current information on the effectiveness of
water treatment chemicals and filters for control of Giardia cysts in areas
where treated water is not available. Four filters and seven chemical
treatments were evaluated for both clear and turbid water at 10C. Three contact
disinfection devices were also tested for cyst inactivation. Filters were
tested with 1-liter volumes of water seeded with 3×10^4 cysts of G. lamblia
produced in gerbils inoculated with in vitro cultured trophozoites; the entire
volume of filtrate was examined for cyst passage. Chemical treatments were
evaluated at concentrations specified by the manufacturer and for contact times
that might be expected of hikers (30 minutes) and campers (eight hours, i.e.,
overnight). Two of the four filter devices tested were 100 percent effective
for Giardia cyst removal. Of the other two filters, one was 90 percent
effective and the other considerably less effective. Among the seven
disinfection treatments, the iodine-based chemicals were all significantly more
effective than the chlorine-based chemicals. None of the chemical treatments
achieved 99.9 percent cyst inactivation with only 30-minute contact. After an
eight-hour contact each of the iodine but none of the chlorine preparations
achieved at least 99.9 percent cyst inactivation. None of the contact
disinfection devices provided appreciable cyst inactivation. Heating water to
at least 70C for 10 minutes was an acceptable alternative treatment.



Giardia lamblia is the most commonly identified human intestinal parasite in the
United States. Giardiasis is commonly transmitted between humans, especially
among small children. lt is also transmitted in water, particularly in the
mountainous regions of the U.S. Since 1965, over 80 waterborne outbreaks of
giardiasis have occurred in community water systems, affecting more than 20,000
persons (1). Giardiasis in hikers and campers has also been documented (2,3);
indeed, it is commonly considered a backpackers’ illness. Giardia cysts in
concentrations as high as four per gallon have been detected in untreated
surface water in northeastern and western states (4).

Concern over waterborne transmission of Giardia has led to development of a
variety of chemical disinfectants and portable filters for individual use in the
backcountry. Although some information on such methods has been reported
(2,5,6), there is no comprehensive guide to their reliability in actually
removing or inactivating Giardia cysts. We tested four commercially available
portable filters and one contact disinfection device for their ability to remove
Giardia cysts from water. We also evaluated the cysticidal effectiveness of
seven chemical disinfectants and three contact disinfection devices.



Cysts of G. lamblia were prepared for use in both the filtration and
disinfection tests by propagation in gerbils inoculated with trophozoites from
sterile culture. Trophozoites were of two isolates: one from a beaver (Be-4
isolate from Alberta) and one from a human (H-2 CSU isolate from Colorado).
Cysts were concentrated from crushed, filtered gerbil feces by flotation on zinc
sulfate (sp. gr. 1.18), cleaned, and stored in distilled water at 4C for up to
10 days before use. Similarly, G. muris cysts of an isolate originally obtained
from hamsters (7) were purified from feces of infected athymic (nu/nu) mice and
stored before use. Cyst concentrations were determined with a Coulter Counter
(Model ZBI, Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL) and a haemacytometer. Except
where noted, cysts were added to water samples in concentrations of about
3×10^4/ml. Cyst viability was assayed by fluorogenic staining (8) and in vitro
excystation (7). In the former method, live cysts are distinguished by two
fluorescing dyes. One dye is fluorescein diacetate (FDA), which when absorbed
by cysts produces a fluorescent green only in live cysts; the second dye, either
propidium iodide (Pl) or ethidium bromide (EB), is excluded efficiently by live
cysts but absorbed by dead cysts, resulting in red fluorescence.

Filter testing

The following backpacker-type water filters were purchased from local retailers:
First Need Water Purification Device (First Need), General Ecology Inc.,
Lionville, PA; H2OK Portable Drinking Water Treatment Unit Model No. 6 (H2OK),
Better Living Laboratories Inc., Memphis, TN; Katadyn Pocket Filter (Katadyn),
Katadyn Products Inc., Wallisellen, Switzerland; and Pocket Purifier, Calco Ltd,
Rosemont, IL. Also noted in this category is the Water Tech Water Purifier
(Water Purifier), Water Technologies Corp., Ann Arbor, Ml. Although it is not
advertised as a filter and was not specifically tested for Giardia cyst removal,
we report qualitative observations made during disinfection testing (see below)
because its configuration and mode of operation suggest that particle removal
may occur. Physical and operating information provided in the filter packaging
is summarized in Appendix A. Each device was tested when it was new. Devices
that removed all cysts when new were retested after a period of use
approximating several months for a regular weekend user.

Each filter was prepared for testing by filtering four liters of tap water to
purge loose carbon particles or debris. The cyst removal performance of each
filter was determined by filtering one liter of spring water, turbidity of 0.1
NTU, to which formalin-fixed G. lamblia cysts had been added. The entire
filtrate volume was passed through a 25-mm dia., 5-um pore size, polycarbonate
membrane (Nuclepore, Pleasanton, CA). stained with EB (100 ug/ml), and mounted
under a cover slip. Cysts were counted at x250 magnification with the aid of
epifluorescence microscopy. A representative portion of each filter was
examined to quantify cyst recovery as described previously (9). The area
examined was inversely proportional to the number of cysts found and ranged from
3.5 percent of seeded positive control filters to 25 percent (one quadrant) of
filters with cyst densities less than one per field. Total numbers of cysts
present were estimated by extrapolation in direct proportion to the area
examined. In extensive work on recovery of Giardia cysts using the procedures
described above, cyst retention on the 5-um polycarbonate membrane in a single
filtration step has routinely averaged 80 to 90 percent (Ongerth JE:
unpublished). Accordingly, the ability to identify high levels of cyst removal,
which would result in passage of very few or no cysts, is excellent. This
ability is unaffected by the factors that contribute to lack of precision in
counting large numbers of cysts on filters; such inaccuracies usually occur when
only small representative subareas are examined and the total numbers are
estimated by extrapolation. A seeded positive control and an unseeded negative
control were processed with each batch of filter evaluations. The cyst removal
performance evaluation was replicated three times for each filter device, with
results expressed as the arithmetic average and corresponding standard

Contact Disinfection Testing

The Water Purifier is described in packaging information as a contact
disinfection device. Likewise, the H2OK and Pocket Purifier devices are
described as providing disinfection as well as removing cysts by filtration.
These devices were therefore tested for their effect on cyst viability in
addition to filtration efficiency. A single 500-ml sample for each device was
seeded with approximately 2.5 x 10^4 cysts and passed through the device.
Filtrate was collected and filtered as described above to recover cysts. The
viability of cysts was then assessed by FDA and EB staining as described below.

Disinfectant Testing

The cysticidal effects of seven commercially available and commonly used
disinfectant preparations were tested with identical procedures. Four of the
products were iodine based: Polar Pure Water Disinfectant (Polar Pure), Polar
Equipment, Saratoga, CA; Coghlan’s Emergency Germicidal Drinking Water Tablets
(CEGDWT). Coghlan’s Ltd, Winnipeg. Canada; Potable Aqua Drinking Water
Germicidal Tablets (Potable Aqua), Wisconsin Pharmacal Inc., Jackson, WI; and 2
percent iodine prepared from I2 reagent grade (Baker, Phillipsburg, NJ). The
remaining three products were chlorine-based: Sierra Water Purifier (Sierra), 4
in 1 Water Co., Santa Fe, NM; Halazone, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL;
and commercial liquid bleach (5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite). Disinfectant
solutions were characterized by pH and total halogen concentration (Appendix B),
the latter being determined colorimetrically using the DPD method.

Two water sources were used, one to reflect clear high-mountain conditions, the
other to reflect downstream, more turbid conditions. Water sources were
characterized by pH, turbidity, and free chlorine demand (Appendix C). The
upstream source was from a small, spring-fed tributary to the Snoqualmie River
near North Bend, Washington. Samples were taken from the stream approximately
50 yards downstream from the spring. The downstream source was the discharge
from Lake Washington in Seattle, Washington. Samples were taken in midstream at
the entrance to Portage Bay, adjacent to the University of Washington campus.
Water samples were prepared for testing by adding disinfectant, according to
manufacturers’ instructions, to one liter of water in stoppered glass bottles
(Appendix B).

Cysticidal properties of the chemical treatments were determined as follows.

1) Water was put in 50-ml disposable plastic centrifuge tubes and placed in a
10C incubator.

2) G. lamblia cysts were added to each test sample at time zero.

3) Tubes were vortex-mixed, sampled, and returned to the incubator.

4) At each sampling time, i.e., time 0, 30 minutes and 8 hours, a 10-ml sample
was withdrawn; a portion was used for measuring disinfectant concentration, and
in the remainder the disinfectant was quenched with 0.1-mM sodium thiosulphate.

5) Cysts in the quenched sample portion were exposed to aqueous solutions of the
viability indicators, FDA (25 ug/ml) and EH (100 ug/ml), filtered on to a 13-mm
dia. 5-um pore-size filter membrane, and rinsed with distilled water (10 ml).

6) Filters were mounted on glass slides, sealed under coverslips and examined by
epifluorescence microscopy at x250 magnification (Model 16, Carl Zeiss, Inc.,
Thornwood, NY) to enumerate proportions of red and green fluorescing cysts
indicating dead and live status, respectively. The viability baseline of the
cysts was established by running a control sample of untreated water seeded with
cysts through each test, using procedures identical to those for disinfectant-
treated samples. Data are presented in terms of percent survival relative to
the controls (Figure 2). The effectiveness of each disinfectant for killing
cysts in both upstream and downstream water was determined in triplicate, with
results expressed as the arithmetic average and corresponding standard

The Water Tech Water Purifier, a contact disinfectant, was also tested as a
chemical disinfectant. The test water was 100 ml of spring-source water seeded
with Giardia cysts. The treated water was filtered, stained, and examined for
cyst viability as described in steps 5 and 6 above. Three replicates were

Heat Inactivation

Inactivation of G. lamblia and G. muris cysts by heating was established as
follows. Cysts were added to distilled water in 15-ml glass test tubes. The
seeded tubes were incubated for 10 minutes at temperatures ranging from 10C to
70C. Afterwards, cyst suspensions were cooled immediately by swirling in 10C
water for one minute. Cyst viability was determined either by excystation or by
staining. If by the latter, FDA and EB were added to the samples, the tubes
were vortex-mixed, and a 1-ml aliquot was filtered through a 13-mm dia. 5-um
pore-size filter membrane. Filters were rinsed, mounted, and examined as
described above to enumerate the live and dead cysts.



Filter Device Tests

The four filters differed significantly in their ability to remove Giardia cysts
(Figure 1). The number of cysts recovered from water having passed through the
filter devices ranged from zero to greater than 10^4 in individual tests. The
performance of individual devices was consistent as indicated by the standard
deviations for each of the three replicate test sets (Figure 1). The percentage
of cysts removed by the devices, corresponding to 100 minus the percent of cysts
recovered from the filtrate, was 100 percent for the First Need and Katadyn
filters and approximately 90 percent for the H2OK filter. The concentration of
cysts in the Pocket Purifier effluent was not statistically different from the
seed concentration.

The First Need and Katadyn filters were then subjected to a period of moderate
use and then retested. The volume of water processed during the simulated use
period was not the same for the two filters owing to differences in their
operation. The difference in volume had no apparent effect on performance of
the two filters. A total of 88 liters of tap water (turbidity of 0.3 NTU) was
filtered with the First Need. During the process it was back-flushed, as
recommended in package instructions, because the filtration rate decreased after
50, 71, and 75 liters had been filtered. After 88 liters had been processed,
the filtration rate was about 25 percent lower than when the filter was new, and
it was retested in that condition. The Katadyn filter was subjected to use by
filtering one liter of tap water four times a day for five days. At the end of
each day, the filter was cleaned according to package instructions by
disassembling, brushing the filter element, and allowing it to air-dry overnight
before reassembly. After the respective periods of use, these two filters were
tested in triplicate for efficiency of cyst removal. Performance of these
filters was the same, 100 percent cyst removal, when they were retested.

Cyst Inactivation

Contact Disinfection Devices – The effect of each of the contact disinfection
devices on G. lamblia cyst viability was limited. The Water Purifier
inactivated about 15 percent of the cysts added in 100 ml of upstream (low
turbidity) water; the H2OK filter inactivated about 5 percent of the cyst
challenge, and the Pocket Purifier inactivated about 2 percent of the cyst

Chemical Disinfectants – The effectiveness of seven disinfecting chemical
preparations ranged from only a few percent to greater than 99.9 percent,
depending on the chemical and its concentration, the contact time, and the
disinfectant demand of the water (Figure 2). None of the disinfectants was more
than 90 percent effective after a contact time of 30 minutes. After eight-hour
contact, the four iodine-based disinfectants, each caused a greater than 99.9
percent reduction in viable cysts. The chlorine-based disinfectants were
clearly less effective than the iodine-based ones at both contact times.

Heating in Water – Experiments conducted with cysts of G. lamblia and of G.
muris indicated that the two species have virtually the same sensitivity to
inactivation by heating. Cysts at both species were completely inactivated by
heating to 70C for 10 minutes. Heating to 50C and 60C for 10 minutes produced
95 and 98 percent inactivation, respectively (Figure 3).



To remove Giardia cysts from water, one must use a filter with sufficiently
small pores to trap the cysts and sufficiently large capacity to produce a
useful volume of treated water before backwashing or replacement is necessary.
Although a number of manufacturers advertise that their filters remove Giardia
cysts, the only previously published account of filter performance was for the
Katadyn unit (6). Our filter evaluation study showed that only the First Need
and the Katadyn filters removed cysts with at least 99.9 percent effectiveness.
Under the same test conditions, the H2OK filter was approximately 90 percent
effective and the Pocket Purifier was less than 50 percent effective for cyst
removal. The analysis of viability for the cysts collected in the effluent of
the Water Purifier, H2OK, and Pocket Purifier indicates that passage through the
device did not significantly reduce the percentage of viable cysts.

The current study showed that none of the chemical treatments could inactivate
more than 90 percent of cysts with 30 minutes of contact time at 10C. At both
30 minutes and eight hours of contact time, the iodine-based disinfectants
inactivated a higher fraction of cysts than did the chlorine-based products.
All methods inactivated a lower percentage of cysts in cloudy or turbid water
than in clear water. All disinfectants performed better with eight hours of
contact time than with 30 minutes. Only the iodine-based compounds inactivated
99 to 99.9 percent of cysts, within eight hours of contact time for both turbid
and clear water. As observed by Jarroll, et al (5), the 2 percent tincture of
iodine was less effective than the other iodine preparations with 30 minutes of
contact time, but it was as effective as the others at eight hours. Comparison
of our results with those of Jarroll, et al (5), is complicated by differences
between test conditions used. However, our results generally indicate more
stringent requirements for effective inactivation of Giardia cysts. Differences
between cyst populations used in the two studies could account for the observed
differences, even though both were G. lamblia. Cysts produced in our
trophozoite – gerbil system had consistently high intrinsic viability (>80
percent), excysted efficiently when fresh (80 to 90 percent), and have appeared
more resistant to halogen disinfectants than reported previously (Ongerth J.E.:

The results of heat inactivation in our study correspond to previous reports
indicating that heating to between 60C and 70C kills Giardia cysts efficiently.
In addition, our data illustrate the correspondence between the fluorogenic
staining and in vitro excystation procedures for assessing cyst viability. When
applied to cysts of the same condition. Staining indicates a slightly higher
proportion of viable cysts than does excystation. Overall, however, the two
procedures provide comparable information.


Figure 1 – Effectiveness of Four Portable Water Filters for Removal of Giardia
Cysts from One-Liter Volumes of Water Each containing approximately 3×10^4 Cysts
(dotted line). [A bar chart showing the positive and negative controls and
results from the filters, on a log scale. The First Need and Katadyn results
and the negative control were all zero. The Pocket Purifier and the positive
control were approximately the same – i.e. the Pocket Purifier did not remove
cysts at all. The H2OK results were somewhat below the positive control,
actually — due to the log scale — indicating 90% removal.]

Figure 2 – Effect of Time and Disinfectant Concentration of Seven Chemical
Disinfectants on Survival of G. lamblia Cysts in Turbid and in Clear Water. [A
rather striking bar chart comparing chemical treatments under varying
conditions. The chlorine compounds were basically ineffective, with no
significant effect at 30 minutes; at 8 hours the Sierra was still totally
ineffective, the bleach killed about half the cysts, and the Halazone killed 70-
90% of the cysts (better in clear water). The iodine compounds were poor at 30
minutes in turbid water (half killed), only a little better at 30 minutes in
clear water (70-90% killed, with Potable Aqua the best), but completely
effective (100% killed) after 8 hours.]

Figure 3 – Inactivation of Giardia Cysts as a Function of Temperature (10-minute
exposures) as Indicated by Ethidium Bromide Staining and by in vitro
Excystation. [A line chart showing cyst survival at different temperatures.
Four combinations of Giardia species, source, and laboratory technique are
shown, but all show approximately the same results. 40C kills no cysts; 50C
kills a lot of cysts, 60C kills most cysts, 70C kills all cysts.]



References to commercial products shall not be construed to represent or imply
the approval or endorsement by project investigators or sponsors.

Grant support was provided in part by the REI Environment Committee which
assumes no responsibility for the content of research reported in this



(1) Craun GF: Waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis: current status. In: Erlandsen
SL, Meyer EA (eds): Giardia and Giardiasis. New York: Plenum Press, 1984; 243-

(2) Kahn FH, Visscher BR: Water disinfection in the wilderness. West J Med
1975; 122:450-453.

(3) Barbour AG, Nichols CR, Fukushima T: An outbreak of giardiasis in a group of
campers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1980; 25:384-389.

(4) Ongerth JE, Butler R, Donner RG, Myrick R, Merry K: Giardia cyst
concentrations in river water. In: Advances in Water Treatment and Analysis,
Vol 15. Denver: Am Water Works Assoc, 1988; 243-261.

(5) Jarroll EL, Bingham AK, Meyer EA: Giardia cyst destruction: effectiveness of
six small quantity water disinfection methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1980; 29:8-11.

(6) Schmidt SD, Meier PG: Evaluation of Giardia cyst removal via portable water
filtration devices. J Freshwater Ecol 1984; 2:435-439.

(7) Schaefer FW III, Rice EW, Hoff JC: Factors promoting in vitro excystation of
Giardia muris cysts. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1984; 78:795-800.

(8) Schupp DG, Erlandsen SL: A new method to determine Giardia cyst viability:
correlation of fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide staining with animal
infectivity. Appl Environ Microbiol 1987; 53:704-707.

(9) Ongerth JE, Stibbs HH: Identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts in river
water. Appl Environ Microbiol 1987; 53:672-676,

(10) American Public Health Assoc: Chapter 408E In: Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater, 15th ed. Washington, DC: Am Public Health
Assoc, 1980; 309-310.


Appendix A: Water Filter characteristics Listed by Manufacturers on Packaging or
Instruction Insert

[Manufacturer column omitted. See text for this information.]

Name Filter Type Operating Operating Useful Restrictions
Mode Rate Life /Limitations

First Need 0.4 um microscreen hand pump 1 pt/min up to 800 A
plus adsorber pints

H2OK 6 um mesh, 3 in. gravity 1 qt/min 2000 gal A, B
activated carbon w/Ag

Katadyn 0.2 um ceramic, hand pump 1 qt/min many years A
Pocket Ag-impregnated

Pocket 10 um (nominal), halo- mouth – – A
Purifier genated resin (38% I), suction
Ag-impregnated carbon

Water Pur- Polystyrene resin bed gravity – 100 gal A, C
ifier (a) (46% I2 as I5)

A – Does not desalinate; not for saltwater or brackish water.
B – Pretreat with I2 for bacterially contaminated water.
C – Not for use with muddy water.
(a) Not described as a filter by package information.


Appendix B: Characteristics of Disinfectant Preparations

[Manufacturer column omitted. See text for this information.]

Name Active Chemical Recommended Application Total Halogen pH
Concentration (b)
(a), (mg/liter)

Polar Pure Crystalline iodine, 1-7 capfuls per quart 2.4 (1 6.1
99.5% depending on temperature cap/quart)

CEGDWT Tetraglycine hydro- 1 tablet per liter or 4.5 (1 5.6
periodate 16.7% (6.68% quart tab/quart)
titrable iodine)

Potable Tetraglycine hydro- 1 tablet per liter or 5.3 (1 5.6
Aqua periodate 16.7% (6.68% quart tab/quart)
titrable iodine)

2% Iodine Iodine 0.4 ml per liter 4.5 6.5

Sierra Calcium hypochlorite & 100 crystals (50 mg) 11.6 6.7
hydrogen peroxide Ca(OCl)2 + 6 drops H2O2
per gallon

Halazone p-dichloro-sulfamoyl 5 tablets per quart 7.5 6.7
benzoic acid, 2.87%

Chlorine sodium hypo-chlorite, 5 ml per gallon 3.9 7.1
bleach 5.25%

(a) As prepared according to package instructions.
(b) In water treated according to package instructions.


Appendix C: Characteristics of Disinfectant Test Water

Source pH Turbidity (NTU) Chlorine Demand (a)

Spring-fed 6.8 0.09 0.3

Lake Washington 7.1 0.75 – 0.80 0.7

(a) 30 minutes, free chlorine demand (5).


The authors

Address reprint requests to Jerry E. Ongerth, PhD, PE, Assistant professor,
Department of Environmental Health, SB-75, University of Washington, School of
Public Health and Community Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195. Dr. Stibbs is with the
Department of Pathobiology, also at the School, and Mr. Macdonald is with the
Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, both at the University of
Washington; Mr. Johnson is with the Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns
Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore; Dr. Frost is with the Office of
Environmental Programs, Department of Social and Health Sciences, Olympia, WA.
This paper, submitted to the Journal January 12, 1289, was revised and accepted
for publication June 22, 1989.


REI Water Filter Chart

REI Water Filters Comparison Chart:
Katadyne MSR PUR First Need
Minimum | .2 absolute | .1 absolute | 1.0 nominal |.4 absolute |
Pore Size | | | | |
Weight | 23 oz. | 19 oz. | 21 oz. | 14 oz. |
Number of | | | | |
Filter | 2 | 4 | 2 | 1 |
Elements | | | | |
Types of | Screen, |Foam, Screen | Glass Fibre,| Charcoal |
Elements | Ceramic |Carbon,Paper | Iodine resin| |
| |Membrane | | |
Cost Per | $.25 | $.28 | $.24 | $.37 |
Gallon | | | | |
Appr.Filter | | | | |
Life | 1000 | 500 | 500 | 100 |
(in Gallons)| | | | |
Approximate | | | | |
Filtering | 120 seconds | 90 seconds | 60 seconds | 90 seconds |
Time | | | | |
(in Quarts) | | | | |
Cost of | | Two Parts | | |
Replacement | $89.00 | $20.00 & | $40.00 | $24.00 |
Filter | | $30.00 | | |
Price | $225.00 | $140.00 | $130.00 | $37.00 |

For room reasons I left off two filters. Its specs are in order:
Basic Designs
1.0 absolute, 12 oz., 2, Granular active carbin & ceramic, $.07,
1000, 60 MINUTES!, $40.00, $60.00.
Timber Line:
2.0 absolute, 6 oz., 1, Spun Polypro, $.30,
100, 70 Seconds, $??.??, $30.00.

The filtering times are probably based on a new unit. Some units are
easy to clean, one can’t be properly, and one can be cleaned on the fly.

Lower prices can be found elsewhere than REI. REI charges list mostly.

Also note some units are easier to use (and clean) than others.

Katadyn MSR PUR 1stNeed line Designs
min pore size .2 .1 1 + I .4 2 1
dry weight 23 oz 19 oz 21 oz 14 oz 6 oz 12 oz
seconds/qt 120 90 60 90 70 grav- (when new)
seconds/qt 120 180 60 180 140 ity (after usage)
filter life 1000 500 500 100 100 1000 (in gallons)
cost/gallon $.25 $.28 $.24 $.37 $.30 $.07
retail price $225 $140 $130 $ 38 $ 30 $ 65
replacement $ 89 $ 50 $ 40 $ 24 n/a $ 40 (filter cost)
# elements 2 4 3 1 1 2
elements screen foam screen carbon polypro carbon
ceramic screen glassfiber ceramic
carbon iodine

Notes: 1st Need, Timberline, and Basic Designs require iodine to treat
bacteria and viruses. Katadyn and MSR require iodine to treat viruses.
Only PUR requires no additional iodine. With carbon elements, only MSR,
1st Need, and Basic Designs remove harmful chemicals.

TABLE OF CONTENTS of this chain:

9/ Water Filter wisdom
10/ Words from Rachel Carson
11/ Snake bite
12/ Netiquette
13/ Questions on conditions and travel
14/ Dedication to Aldo Leopold
15/ Leopold’s lot.
16/ Morbid backcountry/memorial
17/ Information about bears
18/ Poison ivy, frequently ask, under question
19/ Lyme disease, frequently ask, under question
20/ “Telling questions” backcountry Turing test
21/ AMS
22/ Words from Foreman and Hayduke
23/ A bit of song (like camp songs)
24/ What is natural?
25/ A romantic notion of high-tech employment
26/ Other news groups of related interest, networking
27/ Films/cinema references
28/ References (written)
2/ Ethics
3/ Learning I
4/ learning II (lists, “Ten Essentials,” Chouinard comments)
5/ Summary of past topics
6/ Non-wisdom: fire-arms topic circular discussion
7/ Phone / address lists
8/ Fletcher’s Law of Inverse Appreciation and advice


A Glossary Of Vietnam Computer Terms And Their English Equivalents

Newsgroups: soc.culture.vietnamese
From: lam@tesla.ece.wisc.edu
Subject: Glossary of Computer Science terms
Originator: daemon@media-lab.media.mit.edu
Organization: SCV Relay
Date: Mon, 7 Dec 1992 21:14:18 GMT
Lines: 649

Thu+a ca’c Netters :

Sau -da^y la` mo^.t ba?ng -do^’i chie^’u danh tu+` Vie^.t-My~-Pha’p ve^`
tin ho.c. Mong ca’c Netters go’p y’ kie^’n.


Attached is a draft glossary of Vietnamese computer terms and their
English and French equivalents, that were compiled by the folks at the
Institute of Informatics (Vie^.n Tin ho.c) in Viet Nam as part of an
effort in the publication of a general encyclopedia.


—– Begin Included Text ——————————————-

Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
George Boole (1815-1864)
Howard Aiken (1900-1973)
John von Neumann (1903-1957)
Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992)
Alan Turing (1912-1954)
Phan Ddi`nh Die^.u (1936- )


ACM (Association for Computing Machinery)
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
an go^ ri’t [xem thua^.t toa’n]
an toa`n du+~ lie^.u (data security)
a?nh nhi. pha^n (bit image)
a?nh bo^. nho+’ (bitmap)


bai (byte; byte)
ba`n ddie^`u khie^?n (console; console, pupitre)
ba`n phi’m (keyboard; clavier)
ba`n phi’m chu+~ – so^’ (alphanumeric keyboard; clavier alphanume’rique)
ba?n (version)
ba?n ghi (record; enregistrement)
ba?n in (listing)
ba?n ma^~u (prototype)
ma?ng (array; tableau)
ba?ng ti’nh ddie^.n tu+? (spreadsheet)
ba?o ma^.t (confidentiality; confidentialite’)
ba?o tri` (maintenance; maintenance)
ba(m (hashing)
ba(ng ddu.c lo^~ (perforated tape)
ba(ng tu+` (magnetic tape)
bi`a ddu.c lo^~ (perfored card)
bi`a ddie^`u khie^?n (control card; carte de controle)
bie^n di.ch (compilation)
bie^’n (variable; variable)
bie^’n cu.c bo^. (local variable)
bie^’n toa`n cu.c (global variable)
bit (tu+` tie^’ng Anh, vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a binary digit)
bie^?u die^~n tri thu+’c (knowledge representation)
bo’ buo^.c (coercion)
bo^’ tri’ trang (pagination)
bo^. chuye^?n ddo^?i (converter (ADC, DAC); convertisseur (AIN, NIA))
bo^. chu+~ (font)
bo^. co^.ng (adder)
bo^. dda xu+? li’ (multiprocessor)
bo^. dde^’m (counter; compteur)
bo^. ki’ tu+. (character set; alphabet)
bo^. ma~ (code set)
bo^. ma~ ASCII [xem ASCII]
bo^. ma~ mo+? ro^.ng (extended code set)
bo^. ma~ VSCII [xem VSCII]
bo^. nho+’ (memory)
bo^. nho+’ a?o (virtual memory)
bo^. nho+’ a^?n (cache memory)
bo^. nho+’ chi’nh (main memory)
bo^. nho+’ ke^’t ho+.p (associate memory)
bo^. nho+’ dde^.m (buffer)
bo^. nho+’ ddo^.ng (dynamic memory)
bo^. nho+’ pha^n trang (paged memory)
bo^. nho+’ phu. (secondary memory)
bo^. nho+’ RAM (Random Access Memory)
bo^. nho+’ ROM (Read Only Memory)
bo^. nho+’ ti~nh (static memory)
bo^. no^’i ghe’p (interface)
bo^. pha’t sinh tu+. ddo^.ng chu+o+ng tri`nh (automatic program generator)
bo^. thi’ch u+’ng (adaptor; adaptateur)
bo^. tri`nh (package; progiciel hoa(.c produit – programme)
bo^. vi xu+? li’ (microprocessor)
bo^. xu+? li’ (processor)
bo^. xu+? li’ trung ta^m (CPU)
bu’t sa’ng (light pen)
buy’t (bus)


ca`i dda(.t (implementing; implementation)
ca(‘t da’n (cut-paste)
ca^u le^.nh (statement; instruction)
ca^`n vu. (server; serveur)
ca^.p nha^.t (update; mise a` jour)
ca^’p pha’t (allocation; allocation)
ca^’t giu+~ (save)
ca^’u hi`nh (configuration; configuration)
ca^u le^.nh (statement; instruction)
ca^’u tru’c (structure; structure)
ca^’u tru’c ca^y (tree structure)
ca^’u tru’c du+~ lie^.u (data structure)
ca^’u tru’c danh sa’ch (list structure)
ca^’u tru’c chu+o+ng tri`nh (program structure)
ca^’u tru’c ddie^`u khie^?n (control structure)
ca^’u tru’c ma.ng ma’y ti’nh (network structure)
chu+o+ng tri`nh co’ ca^’u tru’c (structured program)
ca^y (tree; arbre)
cha(~n le? (parity; parite’)
cha(.n (blocking)
cha^?n ddoa’n (diagnostic; diagnostique)
che da^’u tho^ng tin (information hiding)
chen ha`ng (preempting; pre’emption)
che^’ ba?n ddie^.n tu+? (desktop publishing)
che^’t ta(‘c (deadlock)
chie^’u (projection)
chi? le^.nh (command)
chi? so^’ (index)
chip (chip; pastille)
cho.n ddu+o+`ng (routing; routage)
cho^`ng (stack; pile)
chua^?n (standard)
chua^?n ho’a (standardization; normalisation)
chuye^?n ddo^?i (conversion; conversion)
chuye^?n ma.ch (switching; commutation)
chu’ gia?i (comment; commentaire)
chu+’ng minh ddi.nh ly’ (theorem proving)
chu+’ng minh tu+. ddo^.ng (automatic proof)
chu+o+ng tri`nh (program; programme)
chu+o+ng tri`nh bie^n di.ch (compiler)
chu+o+ng tri`nh chi’nh (main program)
chu+o+ng tri`nh con (subroutine; sous-programme)
chu+o+ng tri`nh ddi’ch (object program)
chu+o+ng tri`nh thu+? (test program)
chu+o+ng tri`nh go^’c (source program)
chu+o+ng tri`nh tie^.n i’ch (utilities; utilitaires)
con cha.y (cursor; curseur)
con chuo^.t (mouse)
con tro? (pointer; pointeur)
co^ng nghe^. pha^`n me^`m (software engineering; ge’nie logiciel)
co^ng nghe^. tri thu+’c (knowledge engineering)
co^?ng (gate; port)
co^?ng song song (parallel port)
co^?ng no^’i tie^’p (serial port)
co+ che^’ la^.p lua^.n
co+ so+? du+~ lie^.u (data base; base de donne’es)
co+ so+? du+~ lie^.u pha^n ta’n (distributed data base)
co+ so+? tri thu+’c (knowledge base; base de connaisance)
co+` (flag; drapeaux)
cu’ pha’p (syntax; syntaxe)
cu+?a so^? (window; fene^tre)


da.ng Backus-Naur (BNF)
danh mu.c (directory; catalogue)
danh sa’ch (list)
da.y ho.c nho+` ma’y ti’nh
ky’ he^. (signature)
da^’u pha?y ti~nh (fixed point; virgule fixe’)
da^’u pha?y ddo^.ng (floating point; virgule flotante)
da^’u ta’ch (delimiter)
di. bo^. (asynchronous)
di.ch (translation)
di.ch che’o (cross-translation)
di.ch chuye^?n (shift)
di.ch tu+. ddo^.ng (automatic translation)
di.ch vu. du+~ lie^.u
di.ch vu. vie^~n tin
do`ng du+~ lie^.u (data flow)
do.n ra’c (garbage collection)
dung lu+o+.ng bo^. nho+’ (capacity)
dung sai (fault tolerant)
du+ thu+`a (redundant)
du+~ lie^.u (data)


dda chu+o+ng tri`nh (multiprogram)
dda na(ng (general purpose)
dda nhie^.m (multitasking)
dda xu+? li’ (multiprocessing)
dda(.c ta? (specification)
dda^`u cuo^’i (terminal)
dda^`u ddo.c/ghi (read/write head)
dde^` mo^ (demonstration)
dde^. qui (recursion)
ddi~a tu+` (disk)
ddi~a cu+’ng (hard disk)
ddi~a me^`m (floppy disk)
ddi~a quang (optical disk)
ddi.a chi? (address)
ddi.a chi? tuye^.t ddo^’i (absolute address)
ddi.a chi? tu+o+ng ddo^’i (relative address)
ddi.a chi? a?o (virtual address)
ddie^.n toa’n [xem tin ho.c]
ddie^`u khie^?n ho.c (cybernetics)
ddie^`u khie^?n so^’ (digital control)
ddie^`u kie^.n (condition)
ddi.nh danh (identification)
ddi.nh ddi.a chi? (addressing)
ddi.nh vi. (location)
ddo.c (read)
ddo’ng go’i (packing)
ddo^` ho.a ma’y ti’nh (computer graphics)
ddo^`ng du.ng (reentrant)
ddo^. pha^n gia?i (resolution)
ddo^. ddo hie^.u na(ng (performance)
ddo^. phu+’c ta.p (complexity)
ddo^. phu+’c ta.p thua^.t toa’n
ddo^. phu+’c ta.p ti’nh toa’n
ddo^. tin ca^.y (reliability)
ddo^’i (argument)
ddo^’i sa’nh (match)
ddo^’i thoa.i ngu+o+`i-ma’y (man-machine dialog)
ddo^’i tu+o+.ng (object)
ddo^`ng bo^. ho’a (synchronization)
ddo+n the^? (module)
ddo+n vi. ddie^`u khie^?n (control unit)
ddo+n vi. ddie^`u khie^?n ngoa.i vi (peripheral control unit)
ddo+n vi. so^’ ho.c va` logic
ddo+n vi. xu+? li’ trung ta^m (CPU)
ddu’ng dda(‘n (correctness)
ddu.ng ddo^. (collision)




ga’n (assignment; affectation)
gia? le^.nh (pseudocode)
gia?i ma~ (decode; decodage)
giao die^.n (interface)
giao di.ch (transaction)
giao thu+’c (protocol; protocole)
giao tie^’p
dda^`u no^’i (connector)
ghi (write)
go.i (call)
go.i theo gia’ tri. (call by value)
go.i theo te^n (call by name)
go.i theo tham kha?o (call by reference)
lie^n ho+.p (pipeline)
go+~ lo^~i (debug)


ha`m (function; fonction)
ha`ng ddo+.i (queue)
he^. chuye^n gia (expert system)
he^. dde^’m
he^. dde^’m nhi. pha^n (binary numeration)
he^. ddie^`u ha`nh (operating system; syste`me d’e’xploitation)
he^. ddie^`u ha`nh CP/M
he^. ddie^`u ha`nh DOS
he^. ddie^`u ha`nh UNIX
he^. ddie^`u ha`nh ma.ng (network operating system)
he^. pha’t trie^?n (development system)
he^. qua?n tri. co+ so+? du+~ lie^.u (data management system)
he^. tho^’ng (system)
he^. tho^’ng phu+’c ta.p (complex system)
he^. ddie^`u pho^’i (monitor)
he^. tro+. giu’p quye^’t ddi.nh
hie^?n thi. (display)
hie^.u ba`i (token)
hie^.u u+’ng phu. (side effect; effet de bord)
ho.a tie^’t [xem i co^n]
ho.c tu+. ddo^.ng
ho^` so+ (document)
ho+.p di.ch (assembling)
ho+.p ngu+~ (assembly language)
ho^.p thu+ (mail box)


IBM (International Business Machines)
IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing)
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
i co^n (icon)


ke^nh (channel)
ke^’ thu+`a (inheritance; he’ritage)
ke^’ thu+`a bo^.i (multiple inheritance)
ke^’t ghe’p (binding)
ke^’t ghe’p ddo^.ng (dynamic binding)
ke^’t no^’i (joint)
ke^’t xua^’t (output)
kha? chuye^?n (portability)
kha? ta’i ddi.nh vi. (relocatable)
khai ba’o (declaration)
kha(?ng ddi.nh (assertion)
khoa?n mu.c (item)
kho^’i (block; bloc)
kho+?i dda^`u (initialization; initialization)
kho+?i ddo^.ng la.i (mo^`i la.i) (reboot)
kho+?i ta.o [xem kho+?i dda^`u]
khuo^n da.ng (format; format)
ki’ch hoa.t (activate)
kie^?m chu+’ng (verification)
kie^?m thu+? (test)
kie^’n tru’c ma’y ti’nh
kie^?u (kie^?u du+~ lie^.u) (type)
kie^?m tra kie^?u (type checking)
kie^’n tru’c ma’y ti’nh
kie^?u (kie^?u du+~ lie^.u) (type)
kie^?u du+~ lie^.u tru+`u tu+o+.ng (abstract data type)
kie^?u ddo^.ng (dynamic type)
kie^?u ma.nh (strong type)
kie^?u ti~nh (static type)
ki’ pha’p (notation)
ki’ pha’p Ba Lan (Polish notation)
ki’ pha’p giu+~a (infix notation)
ki’ pha’p sau (postfix notation)
ki’ pha’p tru+o+’c (prefix notation)
ki’ tu+. (character)
da^’u ca’ch (blank; blanc)


LAN (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a Local Area Network)
la`m mi.n (refining; rafinement)
la(.p (iteration)
la^`n ngu+o+.c (backtracking; retour arrie`re)
la^.p li.ch (scheduling)
la^.p lua^.n (reasoning) [xem co+ che^’ la^.p lua^.n]
la^.p lua^.n tu+. ddo^.ng (automatic reasoning)
suy lua^.n lu`i (backward chaining)
suy lua^.n tie^’n (forward chaining)
la^.p lua^.n xa^’p xi? (approximate reasoning)
la^.p tri`nh (programming; programmation)
la^.p tri`nh co’ ca^’u tru’c (structured programming)
la^.p tri`nh ha`m (functional programming)
la^.p tri`nh logic (logic programming)
la^.p tri`nh hu+o+’ng ddo^’i tu+o+.ng (object-oriented programming)
le^.nh (instruction)
le^.nh macro
li’ thuye^’t ti’nh toa’n (computation theory)
lie^n he^. ngu+o+.c (feedback)
lie^n ke^’t (link)
lie^n la.c (communication)
lo~i tu+` (xuye^’n tu+`)
lo^~i (error; bug)
lo+`i go.i (call) [xem go.i]
lo+’p (class)
lu+u ddo^` (flowchart; organigramme)


ma~ (code; code)
ma~ ho’a (coding)
ma.ch (circuit)
ma.ch ti’ch ho+.p (intergrated circuit)
ma.ch in (printed circuit)
ma`n hi`nh (screen)
ma`n hi`nh tinh the^? lo?ng (LCD – Liquid Crystal Display)
ma.ng (network; re’seau)
ma.ng cu.c bo^. (local area network; re’seau local)
ma.ng ma’y ti’nh (computer network; re’seau des ordinateurs)
ma.ng Petri (Petri network; re’seau de Pe’tri)
ma’y a?o (virtual machine)
ma’y in (printer)
ma’y in ma tra^.n (matrix printer) [xem ma’y in kim]
ma’y in do`ng (in ro^.ng) (line printer)
ma’y in kim (dot printer)
ma’y in la de (laser printer)
ma’y in phun (ink-jet printer)
ma’y que’t hi`nh (scanner)
ma’y ti’nh (computer; ordinateur)
ma’y ti’nh bo? tu’i (pocket calculator; calculatrice)
ma’y ti’nh tu+o+ng tu+. (analog computer; calculateur analogique)
ma’y ti’nh Pho^n No^i man (von Neumann machine; machine de von Neumann)
ma’y ti’nh ca’ nha^n (personal computer)
ma’y ti’nh mini (minicomputer)
ma’y ti’nh lo+’n (mainframe)
ma’y Turing (Turing machine; machine de Turing)
ma’y ve~ (plotter; traceur de courbes)
ma’y vi ti’nh (micro-computer; micro-ordinateur)
ma(.c ddi.nh (default)
ma(.t na. (mask)
ma^.t ddo^. (density; densite’)
ma^.t hie^.u (password)
ma^.t ma~ (cryptography)
ma^~u (pattern)
mie^`n (region; domain)
mo’c no^’i (link)
modem (vie^’t ta(‘t cho Modulator-Demodulator)
mo^ddun (module; module) [co`n go.i la` ddo+n the^?]
mo^’i no^’i
MOS (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
mo^ hi`nh (model)
mo^ pho?ng (simulation)
mo^ to+ suy lua^.n (inference engine)
mo^i tru+o+`ng la^.p tri`nh (programming environment)
mo^’t (mode)
mo^`i (boot) (co`n go.i la` kho+?i ddo^.ng)
mo^`i la.i (reboot) [xem kho+?i ddo^.ng la.i]
mo+ nuy [xem thu+.c ddo+n]


na.p (load)
ne’n (compress)
nga(‘t (interruption)
nga^n ha`ng du+~ lie^.u (data bank; banque de donne’es)
ngoa.i vi (peripheral)
ngo^n ngu+~ ba^.c cao (high-level language; langage e’volue’)
ngo^n ngu+~ la^.p tri`nh
ho+.p ngu+~ (assembly language)
ALGOL (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a ALGOrithmic Language)
COBOL (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a COmmon Business Oriented Language)
FORTRAN (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a FORmula TRANslator)
LISP (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a LISt Processing)
PL/I (vie^’t ta(‘t tu+` Programming Language One)
BASIC (Vie^’t ta(‘t tu+` Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
Ngo^n ngu+~ C
PROLOG (vie^’t ta(‘t cho PROgramming in LOGic)
ngo^n ngu+~ thua^.t toa’n (algorithmic language)
nguye^n li’ gia?i (resolution principle)
ngu+~ ca?nh (context; contexte)
ngu+~ nghi~a (semantics; se’mantique)
ngu+~ nghi~a ki’ hie^.u (denotational semantics; denotationelle
ngu+~ nghi~a thao ta’c (operational semantics; operationnel semantique)
ngu+~ nghi~a tie^n dde^` (axiomatic semantics)
ngu+o+`i ma’y [xem ro^ bo^’t]
nha~n (label, tag; e’tiquette)
nha^.n da.ng (pattern recognition; reconnaissance des formes)
nha^.n da.ng tie^’ng no’i
nha^.n bie^’t ba(`ng thi. gia’c
hie^?u ngo^n ngu+~ tu+. nhie^n va` nha^.n bie^’t tie^’ng no’i
nha^’t qua’n (consistence)
nha^’t the^? (integrity)
nha(.t le^.nh (fetch)
nhi. pha^n (binary) [xem he^. co+ so^’ hai]


o^to^mat (automaton; automate)
o+ristic (phu+o+ng pha’p) [heuristic method; me’thode heuristique]
o^? ddi~a (disk driver)
o^? ddi~a a?o (virtual driver)


pha.m vi (scope)
pha?n ho^`i [xem lie^n he^. ngu+o+.c]
ca^’p ba^.c (hierarchy; hie’rarchie)
pha^n chia tho+`i gian (time sharing)
pha^n chu`m (clustering)
pha^n ddoa.n (segmentation)
pha^n loa.i (classification)
pha^n ta’ch (decomposition; de’composition)
pha^n ti’ch cu’ pha’p (syntactical analysis; analyse syntaxique)
pha^n ti’ch du+~ lie^.u (data analysis)
pha^n ti’ch he^. tho^’ng (systems analysis)
pha^n trang (paging; pagination)
pha^`n cu+’ng (hardware)
pha^`n me^`m (software)
pha^`n vu+~ng (firmware)
phie^n (session)
phie^’u (bi`a) (card)
pho?ng ta.o (emulation)
pho^ng (chu+~) (font)
phu. thuo^.c ha`m (functional dependency)
pixel (vie^’t ta(‘t cu?a picture element)
phu+o+ng pha’p (method; me’thode)
phu+o+ng pha’p lua^.n (methodology)
phu+o+ng pha’p o+ristic (heuristic method) [xem o+ristic]
pha^n ti’ch tre^n xuo^’ng (top-down analysis)
pha^n ti’ch du+o+’i le^n (bottom-up analysis)


qua’ ta?i (overloading)
tin ho.c qua?n li’ (management; gestion)
qua?n tri. du+~ lie^.u (data management)


ra~nh (track)
re~ nha’nh (branch; rupture dese’quence, branchement)
ro^ bo^’t (robot; robot)
ro+`i ra.c (discrete)


sa(‘p xe^’p (sort)
sinh so^’ nga^~u nhie^n (random number generation)
sie^u ma’y ti’nh (supercomputer)
sie^u ngu+~ (metalanguage)
soa.n tha?o (edit)
song song (parallelism; paralle’lisme)
so^’ ho’a (digitize)
so+ ddo^` kho^’i (flow chart)
ca’p quang (optical cable)
spun linh (spooling)
ta’i du.ng (reusability)
na(ng lu+.c ti’nh toa’n (computing power; puissance de calcul)


ta`i nguye^n (resource; ressource)
ta^.p le^.nh (instruction set)
te^n go.i (name, identifier)
te^.p (file; fichier)
tham bie^’n (parameter)
tham kha?o (reference)
thanh ghi (register)
thanh ghi chi? so^’ (indexed register)
thanh ghi ddoa.n (segment register)
thanh ti’ch lu~y (accumulator)
thao ta’c vie^n (operator)
tha?o chu+o+ng vie^n (ngu+o+`i la^.p tri`nh) (programmer)
tha^m nha^.p (access)
tha^n thie^.n ngu+o+`i su+? du.ng (user-friendly)
the^? hie^.n (interpretation)
the^? nghie^.m (instance)
the^’ he^. ma’y ti’nh (computer generation; ge’ne’ration d’ordinateurs)
thie^’t bi. hie^?n thi. (display)
thie^’t bi. ngoa.i vi (peripheral) [xem ngoa.i vi]
thie^’t ke^’ co’ ma’y ti’nh ho^~ tro+. (CAD: computer-aided design)
thie^’t ke^’ he^. tho^’ng (systems design)
thoa’t ra (escape)
tho^ng ba’o (message)
tho^ng di.ch (interpretation; interpre’tation)
tho^ng tin (information; information)
tho+`i gian tha^m nha^.p (access time)
tho+`i gian chu ki` (cycle time)
tho+`i gian thu+.c (real time)
thuo^.c ti’nh (attribute)
thu tha^.p du+~ lie^.u (data acquisition)
thu tha^.p tri thu+’c (knowledge acquisition)
thu? tu.c (procedure; proce’dure)
thua^.t toa’n (algorithm)
thu+ ti’n ddie^.n tu+? (electronic mail; messagerie e’lectronique)
thu+ vie^.n chu+o+ng tri`nh (library; bibliothe`que)
thu+.c ddo+n (menu) [xem mo+ nuy]
tie^`n to^’ (prefix)
tie^’n tri`nh (process)
tie^’p ca^.n (approach)
tie^’p ca^.n tre^n xuo^’ng (top-down approach)
tie^’p ca^.n du+o+’i le^n (bottom-up approach)
ti`m kie^’m (search)
ti`m kie^’m nhi. pha^n (binary search)
tin ho.c (informatics; informatique)
tin ho.c ho’a (computerize)
tin ho.c pha^n ta’n (distributed information systems)
toa’n ha.ng (operand)
toa’n lamdda ( -calculus)
toa’n tu+?, phe’p toa’n (operator)
toa`n ve.n (integrity)
to^’i u+u ma~ (code optimization)
to^’i u+u tho+`i gian (time optimization)
to^?ng ho+.p tie^’ng no’i (speech syntheses; synthe`se de la parole)
to^?ng kie^?m tra (checksum)
to^?ng qua’t (genericity)
tra.m la`m vie^.c (workstation)
treo (hang)
tri’ tue^. nha^n ta.o (artificial intelligence)
tri`nh (routine)
tri`nh bie^n di.ch (compiler; compilateur)
tri`nh ddie^`u pho^’i (supervisor, scheduler; superviseur)
tri`nh ho+.p di.ch (assembler)
tri`nh soa.n tha?o (editor; editeur)
tri`nh tho^ng di.ch (interpreter)
trong suo^’t (transparency; transparence)
tro^.n (merge)
tro^’ng tu+` (drum)
trung ta^m ti’nh toa’n (computing center; centre de calcul)
truye^`n du+~ lie^.u (data transmission; transmission de donne’es)
truye^`n tho^ng (communication) [xem lie^n la.c]
truye^`n tho^ng ba’o (message passing)
tru+o+`ng (field)
tru+`u tu+o+.ng (abstract)
tru+`u tu+o+.ng du+~ lie^.u (data abstraction)
tru+`u tu+o+.ng ha`m (function abstraction)
tru+`u tu+o+.ng tie^’n tri`nh (process abstraction)
tru+.c tuye^’n (on-line)
gia’n tuye^’n (off-line)
tua^`n tu+. ho’a (serialization; se’rialisation)
tu`y cho.n (option)
tu+` (word)
tu+` ddie^?n (dictionary; dictionnaire)
tu+` ddie^?n du+~ lie^.u (data dictionary)
tu+` kho’a (keyword; motcle’)
tu+. ddo^.ng (automatic)
tu+. ddo^.ng ho’a (automatization)
tu+. ddo^.ng ho’a va(n pho`ng (office automation; bureautique)
tu+o+ng ho+.p (compatibility; compatibitite’)
tu+o+ng ta’c (interaction; interaction)
tu+o+ng tranh (concurrency)


u+u tie^n (priority)


VSCII (Vietnamese Standard Code for Information Interchange)
VLSI (very large scale intergation)
va`o/ra (input/output)
va(n pha.m (grammar; grammaire)
vi la^.p tri`nh (micro programming)
vi ru’t (virus)
vi tin ho.c (microcomputing; micro-informatique)
vie^~n tho^ng (telecommunications; te’le’communication)
vie^~n tin (remote processing)
vie^~n tin ho.c (telematics; te’le’matiques)
vo`ng so^’ng (life cycle)
vo? (shell)


xa^u (string; chaine)
xe^ ma pho (semaphore; se’maphore)
xo^? (dump)
xu+? li’ (processing)
xu+? li’ tua^`n tu+. (sequential processing)
xu+? li’ song song (parallel processing)
xu+? li’ vec to+ (xu+? li’ ba?ng) (vector processing)
xu+? li’ a?nh (picture processing, image processing)
xu+? li’ tho^ng tin (data processing; traitement de l’information)
xu+? li’ va(n ba?n (text processing; traitement de texte)

—– End Included Text ——————————————-

Historical Events Chosen At Random, 217-Present

TIMELINE Some historical events chosen (more or less) at random


217 Year of oldest Pueblo roofbeam that can be dated
400 Heyday of Moundbuilders in Mississippi valley
725 Casa Grande, an Indian fort and large irrigation works built – Arizona
850 Norsemen defeat Irishmen, eject them from Iceland
985 Eric the Red colonizes Greenland
1000 Leif, Eric’s son, builds dwelling on NE coast of Newfoundland
1000 Tiahuanaco civilization in Peru, widespread planting of potatoes, corn
1056 Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
1100 Mayan civilization reaches it’s heighth in Central America
1215 King John seals Magna Carta at Runnymede. But not made law until 1297
1225 Magna Carta reissued for third time in definitive form
1254 Birth of Marco Polo, explorer who will bring pasta to Italy from China
1297 Magna Carta confirmed by Edward I, enters English statute rolls as law
1325 Toltec empire defeated by Aztecs in Mexico
1327 Aztecs establish Mexico City
1332 Parliament divides into two houses
1347 Bubonic plague in Europe; originated in India, 1332. 75 million deaths
1364 Aztecs build their capital at Tenochtitlan, Mexico
1438 Inca rule begins in Peru
1441 Portugese sailors enter slave trade with African Negroes at Cape Blanc
1450 The League of Nations established at Onondaga, NY. 1st true democracy
1451 Birth year of both Cristoforo Columbo and Amerigo Vespucci
1492 Columbus departs Palos, Spain, in Santa Maria. Hopes to find Indies
1494 Spain and Portugal divide New World in Treaty of Tordesillas
1497 John Cabot makes landfall in Newfoundland, claims it for England
1498 Cabots explore as far south as Hatteras
1499 Ojeda explores Venezuelan coastline
1500 Fernandes explores Labrador
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
1501 Gaspar Corte-Real kidnaps 57 Indians in Newfoundland
1501 Rodrigo de Bastidas explores Central American coast & Caribbean
1507 Lands of the New World named for Amerigo Vespucci by Waldseemuller
1510 Spain begins settlements in Jamaica. Two years later in Cuba
1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa names large body of water as “Pacific”
1513 Juan Ponce de Leon lands in Florida
1519 Hernando Cortes begins assault on Mexico, defeats the Aztecs
1519 Cortes brings Arabian horses to America from Spain
1519 Domenico de Pineda explores Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Vera Cruz
1520 Magellan navigates through the straits from Atlantic to Pacific
1521 Guam, where America’s day begins, explored by Magellan
1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explores Hudson River and New York harbor waters
1526 Spanish attempt colonization of Cape Fear; it lasts only a few months
1528 Panfilo de Narvaez invades Florida from Cuba, wars with Indians
1531 Spain invades Peru
1534 Jacques Cartier explores coast of Labrador
1535 Jacques Cartier explores St. Lawrence River, trades with Huron Indians
1536 Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aries
1538 Bogota settled by Quesada
1539 First printing press set up in the New World – at Mexico City
1540 Coronado begins trek north from Mexico to Zuni territory
1540 Coronado’s troops discover the Grand Canyon
1541 Hernando de Soto explores Mississipi River valley and Gulf Coast
1542 Cabrillo explores in area of San Diego
1544 Sebastian Cabot publishes map of the world with remarkable detail
1555 First tobacco taken from America to Spain
1555 Rio de Janeiro colony established by the French
1558 Reign of Elizabeth I begins; ends in 1603
1562 French establish trading post in South Carolina, erect monument in FL
1562 John Hawkins begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
1564 French Huguenots try to start colony at Jacksonville; are killed by Spain
1565 Spanish found St. Augustine, FL. First European colony in the west
1572 Francis Drake attacks Spanish harbors in the Americas
1576 Martin Frobisher puts his name on Frobisher’s Bay, Canada
1577 Sir Francis Drake begins explorations of west coast
1581 Franciscan friars begin missionary work in “New Mexico”
1584 Walter Raleigh knighted by Virgin Queen for naming new colony for her
1585 English attempt colony at Roanoke Island, NC, but have Indian trouble
1587 New colony established at Pamlico Sound. It disappeared within 2 yrs
1588 English defeat Spanish armada of King Philip II
1590 Galileo describes the law of falling bodies
1598 Colonists landed on Sable Island
1598 Don Juan de Onate claims all of New Mexico for Spain
1601 Colony of Tadoussac founded
1602 Cape Cod named by Bartholemew Gosnold, English navigator who found it
1604 Trading post established at Port Royal, Nova Scotia
1606 First charter granted to the Virginia Company, named after Virgin Queen
1607 Captain John Smith first encounters Iroquois in Chesapeake Bay
1607 Jamestown founded
1608 Champlain founds village of Quebec
1609 Champlain makes war against the Iroquois, 1st use of guns on Indians
1609 Henry Hudson explores river valley named for him
1609 East Anglia Puritans leave England for Leiden, Holland for 10 year stay
1609 Dutch establish Fort Orange, now known as Albany, NY
1609 Henry Hudson explores east coast for Netherlands
1609 Santa Fe, New Mexico settled
1609 Kepler describes planetary motions and laws
1610 Henry Hudson discovers Hudson’s Bay
1610 Thomas West, 3rd Lord de la Warr rescues Jamestown colony from starvation
1612 England colonizes Bermuda
1612 French explorers discover Lake Huron
1613 John Rolfe, husband of Pocahontas, cross-breeds tobacco successfully
1614 Captain John Smith explores New England coasts
1614 Thomas Hunt kidnaps 24 Indians from Cape Cod area, sells them as slaves
1615 French trade with local Indians on Georgian Bay
1616 Captain John Smith publishes “A Description of New England”
1616 Pocahontas visits England, poses for portrait; dies on homeward voyage
1616 White settlers introduce small pox to New England. Many Indians die
1619 Black slavery Zntroduced at Jamestown by Dutch traders
1619 First legislative assembly in America, in Virginia, July 30
1620 Slide rule invented by Oughtred, in England
1620 Puritan Pilgrims land at Plymouth Colony, write Mayflower Compact
1621 Pilgrims have first contact with Indian, who greets them in English!
1623 Champlain’s expedition trades for furs with Indians on Lake Superior
1624 Indians barter away Manhattan for about $24.00
1624 Virginia becomes a royal colony
1628 English Parliament enacts Petition of Right
1629 Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions for New Netherland granted
1629 Puritans settle Boston area, call themselves The Massachusetts Bay Co.
1630 Puritans hang John Billington, a murderer; a first for the colony
1630 Boston founded as a town by English Puritans
1632 “Oyster War” begins between VA and MD; continues today
1634 Jean Nicolet explores Lake Michigan shore and Wisconsin
1635 Roger Williams banished from Massachusetts for espousing democracy
1636 First college in the colonies, later named after Rev. John Harvard
1636 Providence Plantations founded in Rhode Island by Roger Williams
1637 Pequot War in Connecticut and Rhode Island
1638 Swedish colony, near Wilmington, DE, introduces log-cabin building
1639 The Fundamental Orders unite three communities in “Connectecotte”
1639 Harvard College sets up first printing press in colonies
1640 First English book published in colonies is Bay Psalm Book; Cambridge
1641 “Body of Liberties” adopted in Massachusetts; precurses Bill of Rights
1642 Pascal invents an adding machine
1643 Invention of the barometer
1643 New England Confederation founded. These are first 4 colonies to unite
1644 First bicameral legislature formed in Massachusetts
1645 First ironworks, at Saugus, MA
1647 Massachusetts School Law requires schoolmaster in towns of 50 families
1648 Iroquois defeat the Hurons, drive them into Canada, north of the Lakes
1649 First Assembly in Maryland. Enacts Toleration Act, freeing religion
1653 Iroquois defeat the Erie Nation, extend influence into o-he-you. (Ohio)
1656 New Netherland Council passes ordinance restricting religion
1657 Rhode Island Assembly adopts freedom of religion
1657 John Washington jumps ship in Virginia, buys land
1661 William Penn deceives Delaware Indians, effectively steals Pennsylvania
1664 Dutch give up control of New Amsterdam, it is renamed New York
1669 LaSalle explores Ohio River valley
1670 Newton gives the world The Calculus
1670 Grant from Charles II leads to settlement of Charleston, SC
1673 Iroquois drive Mosopelea Indians from Southwestern Ohio
1673 Marquette and Jolliet explore northern part of Mississippi valley
1675 Indian “King Phillip” begins retaliatory war against white invaders
1676 Bacon’s Rebellion wages vigilante war against Indians in Virginia
1676 First formally declared Day of Thanksgiving June 29
1679 Settlements in what is now New Hampshire proclaimed a royal colony
1679 Habeas Corpus Amendment Act in England
1680 Pueblo Indians get horses from Spanish; first Plains Indians to do so
1681 Province of Pennsylvania chartered
1682 LaSalle explores Mississippi River, claims river valley for France
1684 Charles II annuls 1629 charter of Massachusetts colony
1684 Cotton Mather coins the term “Americans” for colonists
1685 Louis XIV cancels Edict of Nantes, thousands flee to the colonies
1688 First written protest against slavery, by Mennonites in Germantown, PA
1689 English Parliament enacts Bill of Rights, provides religious freedom
1690 First newspaper banned in the colonies is Publick Occurences, in Boston
1691 Plymouth becomes part of royal colony of Massachusetts
1692 Witch hunts in Salem, MA; 19 die
1693 William and Mary becomes second college in the colonies
1695 Freedom of the press comes to England. Censorship abolished
1696 Habeas Corpus Act suspended in England
1697 Penn proposes a Plan of Union for the English Colonies in America
1699 Woolens Act.
1701 French establish new trading post, call it “Ponchartrain” on de Troit
1701 Yale becomes the third college in the colonies
1703 Benjamin Franklin born in Boston
1707 Scotland and England join to become Great Britain
1709 First Copyright Act, in Britain
1713 Treaty of Utrecht; French Acadians (Cajuns) driven from Nova Scotia to LA
1714 Shawnee establish themselves in western Ohio, driven there from MD
1715 Tuscarora Indians join League of Five Nations, making it Six Nations
1720 Birth of Ottawa Indian war chief Pontiac, near Detroit
1721 Dr. Zabdiel Boylston introduces smallpox vaccinations, in Boston
1723 Benjamin Franklin leaves Boston for Philadelphia
1728 Vitus Bering explores straits which now bear his name
1728 First American steel made in Hartford, CT
1732 Benjamin Franklin publishes Poor Richard’s Almanac
1732 George Washington born in Virginia on February 22; dies in 1799
1732 Hat Act forbade manufacture in colonies of hats made with local fur
1732 First stagecoach route connects Burlington to Perth Amboy
1733 Sugar Act, a revenue enhancement scheme for Britain
1733 Georgia becomes 13th colony; founded by James Oglethorpe
1734 Hamilton defends Zenger in freedom of the press landmark case
1735 John Adams, 2nd President, born October 30; dies July 4, 1826
1736 Patrick Henry born May 29
1737 John Hancock born January 23
1738 The Great Awakening begins, reshaping religious policies everywhere
1738 British traders begin working shores of Lake Erie, compete with French
1738 Future King George III born. Declaration of Independence mentions him
1739 In North Carolina, there is large insurrection by blacks
1740 English Parliament allows naturalization of colonists after 7 years
1740 Philadelphia is largest city in America. Population 13,000
1741 Vitus Bering claims Alaska for his native Russia
1743 Thomas Jefferson, 3rd President, born April 13; dies July 4, 1826
1743 American Philosophical Society founded by Benjamin Franklin
1744 King George’s War begins. France joins war effort against England
1746 College of New Jersey, now called Princeton Univ., founded
1747 New York State Bar Association is first in this continent
1748 “Now I Lay Me Down to Sleep” appears in New England Primer
1748 Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ends King George’s War
1749 England recognizes slavery and plantation system in the south
1749 George Washington becomes land surveyor at age 17
1750 Cumberland Gap discovered, named by Thomas Walker. Westward ho begins
1750 First American coal mine opens in Virginia
1750 Iron Act.
1751 James Madison, father of our Constitution & 4th President, born. d.1836
1751 Liberty Bell ordered from England. 50th anniversary Charter of Privs
1752 Benjamin Franklin goes out to “fly a kite”. A shocking experience!
1752 First general hospital opens in Philadelphia
1753 George Washington explores western Pa; delivers ultimatum to French
1754 Benjamin Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union remarks on Iroquoian League
1754 French and Indian War begins
1754 Major Washington loses battle of Fort Necessity
1755 Braddock’s defeat at Pittsburgh; Washington makes Lt Colonel
1755 Irish immigrant, Jackson, born at sea, will become 7th President
1757 Daniel P. Custis dies, leaves his White House plantation to wife Martha
1758 James Monroe, 5th President, born in Virginia; dies in 1831
1759 George Washington weds Martha Custis, honeymoons at The White House
1760 Final subjugation of Canada by England
1760 George III becomes King of England. Colonial population 1.6 million
1762 Benjamin Franklin redesigns the harmonica, making it a musical instrument
1762 Spain acquires Louisiana from France
1763 French and Indian War ends
1763 Pontiac begins seige of Detroit, now a British fort
1763 Treaty of Paris. England gains Canada and most French land east of MS
1763 Vigilantes known as Paxton Boys massacre peaceful Conestoga village
1764 Mozart writes his first symphony, at age eight
1764 Currency Act.
1764 Revenue Act. Taxation without representation introduced in Boston
1765 Britain tries to raise funds with The Stamp Act
1765 Stamp Act Congress meets in Albany, NY; first inter-colony Congress
1765 Quartering Act requires housing British troops in private homes
1766 Stamp Act repealed by England in response to Colonial boycotts
1766 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon draw the line at MD & PA border
1767 John Quincy Adams, 6th President, born July 11; dies 1848
1767 Daniel Boone crosses Appalachians, keeps heading west
1767 Townshend Duties pile it on higher and deeper, create Customs Office
1768 Colonies circulate letter complaining of taxation; Assemblies dissolved
1768 Birth of Tecumseh, near Dayton, OH
1768 New York Chamber of Commerce established
1769 Pontiac murdered by another Indian, near St. Louis
1770 Boston Massacre. Five dead, six wounded on March 5
1770 Townshend Acts repealed, except for that on tea
1772 Samuel Adams at Boston Town Hall Meeting publishes list of rights
1773 To save nearly bankrupt East India Company, Parliament tries a Tea Act
1773 Boston Tea Party. 342 chests of tea go into the drink
1773 Wm. H. Harrison, 9th President, born Dec 5 in VA, moves to OH; d. 1841
1774 Intolerable Acts include the Coercive Acts
1774 British close the port of Boston in retaliation for tea party
1774 Virginia Conventions begin. Lead to First Continental Congress
1774 First Continental Congress convenes, in Philadelphia, Sept 5
1774 Declaration and Resolves of First Continental Congress Oct 14
1775 Of the 3,500 pysicians in the colonies, only 400 are MD by degree
1775 Patrick Henry says “Give me liberty or give me death!”
1775 Fights at Lexington and Concord follow “the 18th of April, in ’75”
1775 Battle of Breed’s Hill mistakenly named after nearby Bunker Hill
1775 Postal system created. Benjamin Franklin is first Director
1775 Second Continental Congress, again in Philadelphia
1775 Washington accepts promotion to General & Commander In Chief June 16
1775 Declaration on Taking Up of Arms, issued July 6
1775 Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, declares Martial Law November 7
1775 Virginians defeat British at Great Bridge; British bombard Norfolk
1776 General Court of Massachusetts fires Governor, requests he leave
1776 Common Sense written by Thomas Paine
1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights on June 12; written by George Mason
1776 Virginia State Constitution adopted June 29, will be model for all states
1776 Declaration of Independence drafted by Tom Jefferson, with John Adams
1776 Nathan Hale regrets having “but one life to lose”, September 22
1776 Christmas present for Washington at Trenton: 918 German prisoners
1777 General Gates defeats General Burgoyne at Saratoga, NY
1777 Congress adopts the American flag with thirteen stars and stripes
1777 Washington’s Continental Army winters at Valley Forge
1778 France declares war on England, becomes ally of America
1778 Englishman Capt. James Cook explores west coast of North America
1779 Capt. Cook explores Hawaii until his murder by natives there
1779 British surrender to Americans at Vincennes
1779 John Paul Jones, in Bon Homme Richard, defeats Pearson, in Serapis
1780 Death of John Logan, Cayuga Indian Chief. Who will mourn for Logan?
1780 Benedict Arnold attempts to betray West Point
1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect; were drafted in 1777
1781 Cornwallis surrenders to Washington and the allies at Yorktown, VA
1782 Ninety-six Moravian Christian Indians massacred at Gnaddenhutton, OH
1782 First U. S. President born in “The United States” is Van Buren, Dec 5
1783 First daily newspaper is Pennsylvania Evening Post
1783 Treaty of Paris signed Sept 3. Borders of The United States established
1784 Benjamin Franklin invents bifocals
1784 Treaty of Ft. Stanwix; Iroquois cede rights north and west of Ohio R.
1784 Taylor, 12th President, born; dies 1850
1786 Shays’s Rebellion in Massachusetts forcibly closes court systems
1786 Annapolis Convention concludes September 14, suggests Phila convention
1787 Constitutional Convention opens May 25; concludes business Sept 17
1787 Northwest Ordinance adopted July 13 by Continental Congress
1787 United States Constitution framed, sent to Congress and states
1787 Federalist Papers begin publication in newspapers
1788 New Hampshire is 9th state to ratify Constitution. It is now the law
1788 First settlement in Ohio is Marietta, named for Marie Antoinette
1789 French Revolution. Declaration of Rights August 26th
1789 George Washington & John Adams elected as first President & VP
1789 The Judiciary Act specifies numbers of federal courts and judges
1789 Mutiny on the H.M.S. Bounty; survivors establish Pitcairn Is. colony
1790 Tyler, 10th President, born; dies 1862
1790 Death of Benjamin Franklin April 17
1790 First national census finds 3,929,214 persons eligible to be counted
1790 Supreme Court meets for the first time; John Jay is Chief Justice
1791 John Carroll of Baltimore made first Roman Catholic Bishop in U.S.A.
1791 Federal capital to be established in swamplands on the Potomac
1791 First ten Amendments are Bill of Rights that go into effect this year
1792 Congress names the Dollar as our unit of currency; proposer: Jefferson
1792 New York Stock Exchange organized
1792 Political parties formed; Republicans (to be Democrats) & Federalists
1793 Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney
1793 General Anthony Wayne begins campaign against Indians in SW Ohio
1793 John Hancock dies October 8
1793 War between England and France. U.S.A. declares neutrality
1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers, near Toledo, OH. General Wayne v. Indians
1794 Jay’s Treaty requires withdrawal of British troops from U.S.A.
1794 Whiskey Rebellion over excise tax in western Pennsylvania
1795 11th Amendment limits some Federal Judicial power somewhat
1795 Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain opens navigation on Mississippi River
1795 Treaty of Greenville, OH opens up much of Ohio to settlement by whites
1795 Washington poses for Stuart’s portrait, which is now on our dollar bill
1795 Polk, 11th President, born; dies 1849
1796 Washington retires, gives Farewell Address to the nation
1796 John Adams President, Tom Jefferson Vice President, 71-68 vote margin
1796 Moses Cleaveland reaches mouth of Cuyahoga River on July 22
1796 E Pluribus Unum: Out of Many, One; added to American coins
1798 Alien and Sedition Acts. Soon to be repealed
1798 Department of the Navy established after 4 years of having a Navy
1798 Washington comes out of retirement to be Commander In Chief of Army
1798 XYZ Affair, so named after three anonymous French trouble makers
1799 French Revolution ends. Napolean becomes ruler of France
1799 Patrick Henry dies June 6
1799 George Washington dies in Mount Vernon December 14, from quinsy
1800 House elects President Jefferson after electoral college tie with Burr
1800 Spain returns Louisiana to France
1800 Congress establishes Library of Congress
1800 Fillmore, 13th President, born; dies 1874
1801 First stone building in Northwest Territory is Ohio capitol, Chillicothe
1801 Tripolitan War begins; ends in 1805
1803 Louisiana Purchased for $15 million. Lewis & Clark to begin exploration
1803 Ohio enters the Union. Paperwork completed 1953
1803 Atomic theory first published
1804 Ohio University at Athens is first institute of higher learning in NWT
1804 12th Amendment changes Presidential election rules
1804 Osceola born in Tallassee village in Alabama; will lead 2nd Seminole War
1804 Vice President Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in duel
1804 Pierce, 14th President, born; dies 1869
1807 Robert Fulton, in “Clermont”, steams up Hudson River
1808 Congress outlaws importing slaves from Africa
1808 Andrew Johnson, 17th President, born; dies 1875
1809 Abraham Lincoln, 16th President, born in Kentucky February 12; dies 1865
1810 Census counts 7,239,881 persons in United States
1811 Madison allows 20-year charter of Bank of the United States to lapse
1811 Wm. H. Harrison fights Indians at Tippecanoe, near Indianapolis
1811 New Madrid, MO earthquake Dec 16, forecast months before by Tecumseh
1812 War declared on England June 18, day after England repealed the cause
1813 Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry “meets” British in Lake Erie Sept 10
1813 Tecumseh defeated in battle near Detroit, in Ontario
1814 City of Washington captured and burned by British
1814 Francis Scott Key observes battle of Fort McHenry at Baltimore Sept 14
1814 Treaty of Ghent ends War of 1812 on December 24
1815 Andrew Jackson defeats British at New Orleans Jan 8, after war ends
1815 Napolean meets his “Waterloo” on June 18
1815 Village of Cleaveland officially incorporated in Ohio
1816 Capitol of Ohio moves to Columbus
1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered
1817 Work begins on Erie Canal
1818 Anglo-American Convention fixes 49th parallel as border with Canada
1819 SS Savanah makes transatlantic crossing under steam propulsion, a first
1819 Florida ceded by Spain to the United States
1820 Missouri Compromise forbids slavery above 36 degrees 30 minutes latitude
1820 Federalist Party dissolves; without opposition, Jefferson Dems disband
1822 Grant, 18th President, born in Ohio; dies 1885
1822 Hayes, 19th President, born in Ohio; dies 1893
1823 Monroe Doctrine given to Congress December 2
1824 House of Representatives elects John Q. Adams president
1825 Erie Canal completed
1826 Jefferson, then Adams, die on 50th anniversary of Declaration, July 4
1827 Ohio Canal opened for business
1828 Noah Webster publishes “American Dictionary of English Language”
1828 George Worthington Co. founded in village of Cleaveland
1828 Baltimore & Ohio railroad, first designed for passengers & freight
1829 Arthur, 21st President, born; dies 1886
1829 Estate of James Smithson funds Smithsonian Institution
1831 Samuel F. Smith writes “My Country, ’tis of Thee”
1831 Nat Turner leads slave revolt at Southhampton
1831 Garfield, 20th President (and 3rd in a row from Ohio), born; dies 1881
1832 Abe Lincoln enlists in Illinois militia to fight Sac and Fox Indians
1832 Jackson vetoes rechartering of 2nd Bank, causes birth of Whig Party
1832 Jackson supporters counter with rebirth of Jefferson Democratic Party
1833 Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President, born; dies 1901
1833 City of Cleveland buys its first fire engine for $285
1834 Death of Lafayette, Revolutionary War hero on two continents
1834 Charles Babbage demonstrates “analytic engine”, a computer
1835 U.S.A. becomes debt free (briefly) for only time in history
1836 The Alamo. 6000 Mexicans defeat 190 Americans in 12 days on March 6
1837 Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th President, born; dies 1908
1837 Sitting Bull born, dies in 1890
1837 Concord Hymn, by Emerson, commemorates battle of Concord NH in 1775
1837 Rush-Bagot Treaty with Canada creates world’s longest open border
1838 Osceola dies in prison after being tricked by false white flag
1838 Trail of Tears. Thousands of Indians forced from their homes & die
1838 Black Hawk, famous Sac warrior, dies of old age
1839 Abner Doubleday invents baseball at Cooperstown, NY
1839 Railway Express Co. founded in Boston
1840 Chief Joseph born near Wallowa, OR. Becomes great chief of Nez Perce’
1841 Wm. H. Harrison catches cold at Inauguration, dies a month later
1842 Crazy Horse born in South Dakota
1842 Plain Dealer Publishing Co. founded in Cleveland
1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty defines Canadian-U.S. frontier
1843 McKinley, 25th President (5th from Ohio), born; dies 1901
1844 Samuel F. B. Morse opens telegraphic link between Baltimore and D.C.
1845 U. S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD
1845 Texas is annexed; war with Mexico follows
1846 Large crack in Liberty Bell gets too bad to permit ringing any more
1846 Potato famine in Ireland. Many flee to America for survival
1847 Brigham Young leads his followers into Salt Lake City, UT area
1847 Thomas Alva Edison born in Milan, OH February 11; dies in 1931
1847 American troops fight their way into the Halls of Montezuma in Mexico
1848 Treaty of 1848 gets CA, NM, AZ, NV UT, parts of CO and WY for the Union
1848 Cornerstone laid for the Washington Monument
1849 There’s G O L D in them thar hills! Invasion of California begins
1849 Eastern Michigan University founded
1853 Gadsden Purchase brings some Mexican territory into U.S.A.
1853 Commodore Matthew Perry opens trade routes with Japan
1854 War between Cleveland and Ohio City settled by annexation of latter
1854 Kansas – Nebraska Act. Provides springboard for Abe Lincoln
1854 Republican Party formed in Ripon, WI 28 February, under John Fremont
1854 George Boole writes on theories of logic and probabilities
1855 Soo Canal opens upper Great Lakes to commercial navigation
1855 Longfellow uses name of real Six Nation’s hero Hiawatha in mythical poem
1856 Wilson, 28th President, born; dies 1924
1856 Western Union Telegraph Co. established in Cleveland
1856 Cocaine extracted from cocoa beans, but has no legitimate use
1857 Dred Scott decision handed down by Supreme Court
1857 Transatlantic cable begins; completed in 1866
1857 Taft, 27th President (7th from Ohio), bo9n; dies 1930
1858 Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President, born; dies 1919
1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads assault on armory at Harper’s Ferry
1859 Colonel Robert E. Lee, U. S. Army, commands troops at Harpers Ferry
1859 Drake puts down first oil well in U.S.A., Titusville, PA
1860 Annie Oakley born in Darke County, Ohio log cabin
1860 Edwin C. Higbee opens store on Cleveland Public Square
1860 South Carolina becomes first state to secede from Union, December 20
1861 Confederate States adopt Provisional Constitution, February 8
1861 Civil War begins at Fort Sumter, Charleston, SC, April 12
1861 Ohioan Generals Grant, Sherman and Sheridan ride off to war
1861 Congress enacts first income tax August 2, on incomes more than $800
1861 U. S. Navy’s first aircraft carrier launches hot air balloon Aug 3
1861 First Congressional Medals of Honor awarded, to Union Navymen
1862 The Homestead Act.
1862 Duel between Merrimac and Monitor March 8; CSS Merrimac withdrew
1862 Ohioans LTC R. B. Hayes and Sgt Wm. McKinley saw action at Antietam
1863 The Emancipation Proclamation.
1863 The Gettysburg Address dedicated to more than two score thousand dead
1864 Lincoln posed for photograph which appears on $5 bill, Feb 9
1864 “In God We Trust” put on American coins for the first time April 22
1864 Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Sand Creek, CO
1864 Lincoln proclaims last Thursday in November to be Thanksgiving Day
1865 13th amendment abolishes slavery
1865 Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox on Palm Sunday, April 9
1865 Lincoln shot by Boothe April 14, dies next day
1865 Confederate Army surrenders at Shreveport, LA; Civil War ends May 26
1865 Last shot of Civil War fired by CSS Shenandoah in Bering Sea, June 22
1865 Harding, 29th President (8th from Ohio), born; dies in 1923
1866 Ohio briefly adopts state motto: “Imperium in Imperio”
1866 Congress recognizes the Metric system of measurements
1866 Alfred Nobel invents something that is “dynamite”
1867 British North American Act creates the Dominion of Canada
1867 US buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
1868 14th amendment prohibits voting discrimination, among other things
1868 House impeaches President Johnson. Senate acquits him by one vote
1869 Transcontinental railroad completed; Ogden, UT wins the golden spike
1869 Cleveland’s first professional baseball team is The Forest City’s
1870 “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea”, in a nuclear submarine
1870 15th Amendment gives blacks the right to vote
1870 John D. Rockefeller founds Standard Oil Company, in Cleveland, OH
1870 Robert E. Lee dies, October 12
1871 Mrs. O’Leary’s cow blamed for Chicago fire
1872 Coolidge, 30th President, born; dies 1933
1874 Hoover, 31st President, born; dies 1964
1876 Custer makes history books at Little Big Horn in Montana
1876 Liberty statue presented by France, construction requires ten years
1876 Does the name “Alexander Graham” ring a bell? Telephone invented
1877 Crazy Horse dies in a Nebraska prison from stab wounds
1878 First electric street lighting anywhere is on Cleveland Public Square
1880 Case School of Applied Science established in Cleveland
1881 Garfield assassinated. Arthur moves into the presidency
1882 F. D. Roosevelt, 32nd President, born; dies 1945
1883 First American skyscraper soars into Chicago skies, 10 stories
1883 Indonesian volcano Krakatau blows it’s top; 35,000 die
1884 Truman, 33rd President, born; dies 1972
1884 First “World Series” played
1889 Jefferson Davis dies at age 81 on December 6
1890 Eisenhower, 34th President, born; dies 1969
1890 Massacre at Wounded Knee
1892 Pledge of Allegiance published. Changes made in 1954
1895 “America the Beau:iful” written by Katherine Lee Bates
1898 Spanish – American War. Teddy Roosevelt rough-rides his way into Cuba
1900 Boxer Rebellion against foreigners in China begins
1901 McKinley assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt moves into presidency
1902 State of Ohio authorizes a state flag on May 9
1902 First 4-H Club anywhere is in Springfield, OH
1903 Wright brothers prove they are right for aviation at Kitty Hawk, NC
1904 Chief Joseph dies in exile in Washington state, fighting no more, forever
1904 Ohio adopts Scarlet Carnation as state flower to honor McKinley
1908 L. B. Johnson, 36th President, born; dies 1973
1909 NAACP founded by W. E. B. DuBois
1911 Reagan, 40th President, born
1912 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents the gas mask
1912 SS Titanic hits iceberg, 1503 lives lost
1913 Harriet Tubman, heroine of underground railroad, dies; buried in Ohio
1913 Nixon, 37th President, born
1913 Ford, 38th President (1st non-elected), born
1913 16th Amendment establishes income tax
1913 17th Amendment changed election rules for Senators
1914 World War I begins
1915 SS Lusitania sunk
1917 Kennedy, 35th President, born; dies 1963
1917 Russian Revolution; they enjoy brief democracy for only time in history
1918 The American’s Creed adopted April 3
1918 Armistice ends WW I on 11th hour of 11th day of 11th month
1919 18th Amendment introduces prohibition of intoxicating liquors
1920 19th Amendment brings women the vote
1923 Garrett Morgan of Cleveland invents traffic signals
1924 Carter, 39th President, born
1924 Bush, 41st President, born
1925 First municipal airport in the world is Hopkins, at Cleveland, OH
1929 Great Depression begins after bank and stock failures
1931 The National Anthem finally adopted by Congress March 3
1932 20th Amendment established starting date for Presidency & Congress
1933 21st Amendment repeals prohibition amendment
1933 Ohio adopts the Cardinal as the “Official Bird”
1939 Bill of Rights finally ratified by Massachusetts, Georgia & Connecticut
1941 December 7, the Day of Infamy, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, HI
1945 World War II ends; first in Europe, then in Japan
1945 United Nations chartered in San Francisco; later moves to NYC
1947 Transistor invented at Bell Labs, in New Jersey
1950 North Korea invades South Korea
1951 22nd Amendment limits president to two terms. 1st proposer: Jefferson
1953 Most hostilities end in Korea, 38th parallel becomes DMZ
1953 Ohio adopts the Buckeye as the “Official Tree”
1959 Ohio adopts new Official Motto: “With God, All Things Are Possible”
1960 23rd Amendment granted Electoral College representation to DC
1962 Ohioan John Glenn is first U. S. astronaut to orbit earth
1962 Military aid begins in South Vietnam
1963 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. announces “I Have A Dream” on August 28
1963 John F. Kennedy assassinated, Johnson moves into presidency
1964 24th Amendment killed “poll taxes”
1965 Ohio Flint adopted as the Official Gem Stone of the state
1967 25th Amendment allows President to step aside temporarily, then resume
1968 Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. murdered in Memphis
1969 Ohioan Neil Armstrong took one small step for a man, onto the moon
1971 26th amendment gives 18 year olds the vote
1973 Vice President Agnew forced to resign, Ford becomes 1st non-elected VP
1974 Nixon resigns in disgrace, Ford moves into the presidency
1975 The fall of Saigon, South Vietnam
1980 Mount St. Helens volcano erupts
1981 First female Supreme Court Justice is Sandra Day O’Connor
1984 Geraldine Ferraro is first serious female Vice Presidential candidate
1986 First true community computer system goes online in Cleveland, Ohio
1986 Rutan and Yeager took a one-tank-trip around the world
1986 Shuttle “Challenger” exploded on takeoff, 7 astronXuts perished
1989 Ohio adopts new words to official State Song

Prepared by Gerald Murphy (The Cleveland Free-Net – aa300)
Distributed by the Cybercasting Services Division of the
National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN).

Permission is hereby granted to download, reprint, and/or otherwise
redistribute this file, provided appropriate point of origin
credit is given to the preparer(s) and the National Public
Telecomputing Network.

A Collection Of Astroid Classifications/Texonomies

Asteroid Classifications
Tholen Barucci
Minor Planet Class Class Group Notes
1 Ceres G G0
2 Pallas B B3
3 Juno S S0
4 Vesta V V0
5 Astraea S S0
6 Hebe S S0
7 Iris S S0
8 Flora S S0
9 Metis S
10 Hygiea C C0
11 Parthenope S S0
12 Victoria S S0
13 Egeria G 1
14 Irene S
15 Eunomia S S0
16 Psyche M M0
17 Thetis S S0
18 Melpomene S S0
19 Fortuna G
20 Massalia S S0
21 Lutetia M M0
22 Kalliope M M0
23 Thalia S S0
24 Themis C
25 Phocaea S S2 PHO
26 Proserpina S S0
27 Euterpe S
28 Bellona S S0
29 Amphitrite S S0
30 Urania S S0
31 Euphrosyne C
32 Pomona S S0
33 Polyhymnia S
34 Circe C C0
35 Leukothea C C0
36 Atalante C
37 Fides S S0
38 Leda C C0
39 Laetitia S S0
40 Harmonia S S0
41 Daphne C C0
42 Isis S S0
43 Ariadne S S0
44 Nysa E E0
45 Eugenia FC C0
46 Hestia P C0
47 Aglaja C C0
48 Doris CG
49 Pales CG C0
50 Virginia X
51 Nemausa CU S1
52 Europa CF C0
53 Kalypso XC
54 Alexandra C C0
55 Pandora M E0
56 Melete P C0
57 Mnemosyne S S0
58 Concordia C C0
59 Elpis CP C0
60 Echo S S0
61 Danae S S0
62 Erato BU B3
63 Ausonia S S0
64 Angelina E
65 Cybele P C0 CYB
66 Maja C C0
67 Asia S S0
68 Leto S S0
69 Hesperia M M0
70 Panopaea C C0
71 Niobe S S0
72 Feronia TDG
73 Klytia S
74 Galatea C
75 Eurydike M M0
76 Freia P C0 CYB
77 Frigga MU D2
78 Diana C C0
79 Eurynome S S0
80 Sappho S S0
81 Terpsichore C C0
82 Alkmene S S0
83 Beatrix X M0
84 Klio G
85 Io FC C0
86 Semele C C0
87 Sylvia P C0 CYB
88 Thisbe CF
89 Julia S S0
90 Antiope C C0
91 Aegina CP
92 Undina X M0
93 Minerva CU B3
94 Aurora CP C0
95 Arethusa C C0
96 Aegle T
97 Klotho M M0
98 Ianthe CG C0
99 Dike C
100 Hekate S
101 Helena S S0
102 Miriam P D2
103 Hera S S0
104 Klymene C C0
105 Artemis C C0 PHO
106 Dione G G0
107 Camilla C C0 CYB
108 Hecuba S S0
109 Felicitas GC C0
110 Lydia M M0
111 Ate C C0
112 Iphigenia DCX
113 Amalthea S S2
114 Kassandra T D3
115 Thyra S S1
116 Sirona S S0
117 Lomia XC C0
118 Peitho S S0
119 Althaea S S2
120 Lachesis C C0
121 Hermione C C0 CYB
122 Gerda ST
123 Brunhild S
124 Alkeste S S0
125 Liberatrix M M0
126 Velleda S
127 Johanna CX
128 Nemesis C C0
129 Antigone M
130 Elektra G G0
131 Vala SU S1
132 Aethra M M0 MC
133 Cyrene SR
134 Sophrosyne C C0
135 Hertha M M0
136 Austria M
137 Meliboea C C0
138 Tolosa S
139 Juewa CP
140 Siwa P
141 Lumen CPF
142 Polana F B1
143 Adria C
144 Vibilia C C0
145 Adeona C C0
146 Lucina C C0
147 Protogeneia C C0
148 Gallia GU S1
149 Medusa S
150 Nuwa CX
151 Abundantia S
152 Atala D
153 Hilda P C0 HIL
155 Scylla XFC
156 Xanthippe C C0
158 Koronis S S0
159 Aemilia C C0
160 Una CX
161 Athor M M0
162 Laurentia STU
163 Erigone C
164 Eva CX
165 Loreley CD
166 Rhodope GC:
167 Urda S
168 Sibylla C C0 CYB
169 Zelia S S0
170 Maria S S0
171 Ophelia C C0
172 Baucis S
173 Ino C C0
174 Phaedra S
175 Andromache C
176 Iduna G
177 Irma C:
178 Belisana S
179 Klytaemnestra S S0
180 Garumna S
181 Eucharis S
182 Elsa S
183 Istria S
184 Dejopeja X
185 Eunike C C0
186 Celuta S S0
187 Lamberta C C0
188 Menippe S S0
189 Phthia S
190 Ismene P HIL
191 Kolga XC:
192 Nausikaa S V0 2
194 Prokne C C0
195 Eurykleia C C0
196 Philomela S S0
197 Arete S
198 Ampella S S0
200 Dynamene C C0
201 Penelope M M0
202 Chryseis S
203 Pompeja DCX:
204 Kallisto S S0
205 Martha C
206 Hersilia C
207 Hedda C
208 Lacrimosa S
209 Dido C C0
210 Isabella CF
211 Isolda C C0
212 Medea DCX:
213 Lilaea F B1
214 Aschera E E0
215 Oenone S
216 Kleopatra M M0
217 Eudora X
218 Bianca S
219 Thusnelda S S0
220 Stephania XC
221 Eos S S0
222 Lucia BU B0
223 Rosa X
224 Oceana M
225 Henrietta F C0 CYB
228 Agathe S S2
229 Adelinda BCU C0 CYB
230 Athamantis S S0
232 Russia C C0
233 Asterope T D3
234 Barbara S S0
235 Carolina S
236 Honoria S S0
237 Coelestina S
238 Hypatia C C0
240 Vanadis C C0
241 Germania CP C0
243 Ida S S0
245 Vera S S0
246 Asporina A A0
247 Eukrate CP
250 Bettina M M0
254 Augusta S
255 Oppavia X
257 Silesia SCTU
258 Tyche S S0
259 Aletheia CP
260 Huberta CX: CYB
261 Prymno B B3
262 Valda S
264 Libussa S S0
266 Aline C C0
267 Tirza DU
268 Adorea FC C0
270 Anahita S
271 Penthesilea PC
273 Atropos SCTU PHO
275 Sapientia X
276 Adelheid X C0
277 Elvira S S0
279 Thule D D0
281 Lucretia SU
282 Clorinde BFU:: B0
283 Emma X
284 Amalia CX
286 Iclea CX
287 Nephthys S S0
288 Glauke S S0
289 Nenetta A A0
293 Brasilia CX
295 Theresia S
296 Phaetusa S
302 Clarissa F C0
304 Olga C C0
305 Gordonia S
306 Unitas S S0
307 Nike CX
308 Polyxo T D3
311 Claudia S
312 Pierretta S
313 Chaldaea C C0
317 Roxane E E0
318 Magdalena CXF
321 Florentina S
322 Phaeo X M0
323 Brucia S S0
324 Bamberga CP
325 Heidelberga M
326 Tamara C C0 PHO
328 Gudrun S
329 Svea C C0
331 Etheridgea CX
333 Badenia C:
334 Chicago C C0 HIL
335 Roberta FP C0
336 Lacadiera D D0
337 Devosa X M0
338 Budrosa M M0
339 Dorothea S S1
340 Eduarda S
341 California S
342 Endymion C
343 Ostara CSGU
344 Desiderata C C0 3
345 Tercidina C C0
346 Hermentaria S S0
347 Pariana M M0
349 Dembowska R V0
350 Ornamenta C C0
351 Yrsa S
352 Gisela S S0
354 Eleonora S S2
356 Liguria C
357 Ninina CX
359 Georgia CX M0
360 Carlova C C0
361 Bononia DP HIL
362 Havnia XC
363 Padua XC
364 Isara S S0
365 Corduba X C0
368 Haidea D D2
369 Aeria M M0
370 Modestia X
371 Bohemia QSV
372 Palma BFC
373 Melusina C C0
374 Burgundia S S0
375 Ursula C
376 Geometria S S0
377 Campania PD
378 Holmia S
379 Huenna B C0
380 Fiducia C C0
381 Myrrha C C0
382 Dodona M M0
383 Janina B B3
384 Burdigala S
385 Ilmatar S
386 Siegena C C0
387 Aquitania S S0
388 Charybdis C C0
389 Industria S S0
390 Alma DT
391 Ingeborg S PHO
393 Lampetia C
394 Arduina S S0
395 Delia C
397 Vienna S
402 Chloe S S0
403 Cyane S
404 Arsinoe C C0
405 Thia C C0
406 Erna P M0
407 Arachne C C0
409 Aspasia CX
410 Chloris C C0
413 Edburga M
414 Liriope C C0 CYB
415 Palatia DP
416 Vaticana S S0
417 Suevia X
418 Alemannia M M0
419 Aurelia F C0
420 Bertholda P M0 CYB
421 Zahringia S
422 Berolina DX
423 Diotima C C0
426 Hippo F
429 Lotis C C0
431 Nephele B C0
432 Pythia S
433 Eros S AMO
434 Hungaria E HUN
435 Ella DCX
438 Zeuxo F:
439 Ohio X:
441 Bathilde M
442 Eichsfeldia C C0
443 Photographica S S3
444 Gyptis C C0
445 Edna C
446 Aeternitas A A0
447 Valentine TD
448 Natalie C
449 Hamburga C C0
450 Brigitta CSU
451 Patientia CU B3
453 Tea S
454 Mathesis CB
455 Bruchsalia CP
458 Hercynia S
459 Signe S S0
461 Saskia FCX
462 Eriphyla S
463 Lola X
464 Megaira FXU:
466 Tisiphone C C0 CYB
468 Lina CPF
469 Argentina X
470 Kilia S S0
471 Papagena S S0
472 Roma S S0
475 Ocllo X M0 MC
476 Hedwig P C0
477 Italia S S0
478 Tergeste S S0
480 Hansa S S0
481 Emita C
482 Petrina S
483 Seppina S S0 CYB
487 Venetia S
488 Kreusa C
489 Comacina C
490 Veritas C
494 Virtus C
496 Gryphia S S0
497 Iva M
498 Tokio M D3
499 Venusia P C0 HIL
502 Sigune S PHO
503 Evelyn XC
505 Cava FC
506 Marion XC C0
508 Princetonia C C0
509 Iolanda S S0
510 Mabella PD
511 Davida C C0
512 Taurinensis S S2 MC
513 Centesima S
514 Armida XC C0
515 Athalia I S0 4
516 Amherstia M
517 Edith X
519 Sylvania S S0
520 Franziska CGU
521 Brixia C C0
522 Helga X C0 CYB
524 Fidelio XC
525 Adelaide SU
526 Jena B C0
529 Preziosa S S0
530 Turandot F C0
532 Herculina S S0
533 Sara S
534 Nassovia S
535 Montague C
536 Merapi X C0 CYB
537 Pauly DU:
540 Rosamunde S S0
542 Susanna S
545 Messalina CD
546 Herodias TDG
547 Praxedis XD:
548 Kressida S
549 Jessonda S S0
550 Senta S
551 Ortrud XC C0
554 Peraga FC C0
556 Phyllis S S0
558 Carmen M M0
559 Nanon C C0
560 Delila —
561 Ingwelde XCU
562 Salome S S0
563 Suleika S S0
564 Dudu CDX:
565 Marbachia S
566 Stereoskopia C C0 CYB
567 Eleutheria CFB:
569 Misa C
570 Kythera ST S0 CYB
571 Dulcinea S S0
572 Rebekka XDC
574 Reginhild S
579 Sidonia S S0
582 Olympia S S0
583 Klotilde C C0
584 Semiramis S S0
585 Bilkis C
586 Thekla C:
588 Achilles DU D1 TRO
589 Croatia CX
591 Irmgard X
593 Titania C C0
596 Scheila PCD
598 Octavia C:
599 Luisa S S0
601 Nerthus X
602 Marianna C C0
606 Brangane TSD D3
611 Valeria S
613 Ginevra P C0
615 Roswitha CX
616 Elly S S0
617 Patroclus P C0 TRO
618 Elfriede C C0
619 Triberga S
620 Drakonia E
621 Werdandi FCX:
622 Esther S
623 Chimaera XC
624 Hektor D TRO
626 Notburga CX C0
627 Charis XB:
628 Christine SD
631 Philippina S S0
633 Zelima S
635 Vundtia C C0
639 Latona S S0
640 Brambilla G G0
642 Clara S
643 Scheherezade P C0 CYB
644 Cosima S
645 Agrippina S
647 Adelgunde X
648 Pippa XC C0
650 Amalasuntha —
651 Antikleia S S3
653 Berenike S S0
654 Zelinda C C0 PHO
658 Asteria S
659 Nestor XC C0 TRO
660 Crescentia S S0
661 Cloelia S S0
663 Gerlinde X C0
664 Judith XC
669 Kypria S
673 Edda S
674 Rachele S
675 Ludmilla S
676 Melitta XC
679 Pax I
680 Genoveva XC
686 Gersuind S S0
687 Tinette X
689 Zita CX:
690 Wratislavia CPF
691 Lehigh CD:
692 Hippodamia S S0 CYB
693 Zerbinetta ST
694 Ekard CP:
695 Bella S
696 Leonora XC
697 Galilea C:
699 Hela S MC
701 Oriola C
702 Alauda C C0
704 Interamnia F C0
705 Erminia X C0
708 Raphaela S
709 Fringilla X
712 Boliviana C C0
713 Luscinia C C0 CYB
714 Ulula S S0
716 Berkeley S
717 Wisibada DX:
720 Bohlinia S
721 Tabora D D0 CYB
725 Amanda CSU C0
727 Nipponia DT
729 Watsonia STGD
731 Sorga CD
733 Mocia CF C0 CYB
735 Marghanna C
736 Harvard S
737 Arequipa S
738 Alagasta CGSU
739 Mandeville X C0
740 Cantabia CX C0
741 Botolphia X
742 Edisona S
744 Aguntina FX:
746 Marlu P C0
747 Winchester PC
748 Simeisa P C0 HIL
749 Malzovia S
750 Oskar F B1
751 Faina C C0
753 Tiflis S
754 Malabar XC
755 Quintilla M M0
757 Portlandia XF M0
758 Mancunia X
760 Massinga SU
761 Brendelia SC
762 Pulcova F C0
764 Gedania C
766 Moguntia MU
768 Struveana X
770 Bali S
771 Libera X M0
772 Tanete C C0
773 Irmintraud D D0
775 Lumiere S S0
776 Berbericia C
778 Theobalda F C0
781 Kartvelia CPU:
782 Montefiore S
783 Nora —
785 Zwetana M B2
786 Bredichina C C0
790 Pretoria P C0 CYB
791 Ani C C0
793 Arizona DU:
796 Sarita XD
797 Montana S
798 Ruth M
800 Kressmannia S
801 Helwerthia XC C0
804 Hispania PC C0
805 Hormuthia CX C0
807 Ceraskia S
811 Nauheima S S0
814 Tauris C
821 Fanny C
822 Lalage DXCU
824 Anastasia S
825 Tanina SR
828 Lindemannia XFU
830 Petropolitana S
834 Burnhamia GS:
838 Seraphina P C0
839 Valborg S
846 Lipperta CBU:
847 Agnia S
849 Ara M
851 Zeissia S S0
853 Nansenia XD
857 Glasenappia MU
858 El Djezair S
860 Ursina M M0
863 Benkoela A A0
864 Aase S
868 Lova C:
872 Holda M
873 Mechthild PC C0
876 Scott S
877 Walkure F C0
880 Herba F C0
883 Matterania S
884 Priamus D TRO
887 Alinda S AMO
888 Parysatis S
890 Waltraut CTGU:
893 Leopoldina XF
895 Helio FCB
897 Lysistrata S S0
899 Jokaste XB
901 Brunsia S
907 Rhoda C C0
909 Ulla X C0 CYB
911 Agamemnon D TRO
914 Palisana CU D3 PHO
920 Rogeria DTU
924 Toni CX
925 Alphonsina S S0
927 Ratisbona CB:
931 Whittemora M M0
932 Hooveria CB
937 Bethgea S S2
939 Isberga S
940 Kordula FC: CYB
941 Murray CX
943 Begonia ST
944 Hidalgo D
945 Barcelona S S0
946 Poesia FU C0
951 Gaspra S S0
954 Li FCX
958 Asplinda — HIL
962 Aslog S S0
963 Iduberga S
966 Muschi S
968 Petunia S
969 Leocadia FXU: B2
974 Lioba S S0
975 Perseverantia S
976 Benjamina XD:
977 Philippa C
978 Aidamina PF
980 Anacostia SU S3
981 Martina CFU:
983 Gunila XD
991 McDonalda C:
996 Hilaritas B C0
1001 Gaussia PC C0
1004 Belopolskya PC CYB
1011 Laodamia S MC
1012 Sarema F
1013 Tombecka XSC
1015 Christa C
1019 Strackea S S2 HUN
1021 Flammario F C0
1023 Thomana G
1025 Riema E HUN
1028 Lydina C C0 CYB
1029 La Plata S
1031 Arctica CX:
1036 Ganymed S S0 AMO
1038 Tuckia DTU: HIL
1043 Beate S
1047 Geisha S
1048 Feodosia XC
1052 Belgica S
1055 Tynka S
1058 Grubba S
1061 Paeonia C
1075 Helina SU
1076 Viola F B1
1078 Mentha S
1079 Mimosa S
1080 Orchis F B1
1082 Pirola C
1087 Arabis S S0
1088 Mitaka S
1093 Freda C
1102 Pepita C
1103 Sequoia E HUN
1105 Fragaria ST S0
1108 Demeter CX PHO
1109 Tata FC
1111 Reinmuthia FXU:
1112 Polonia S
1124 Stroobantia X M0
1127 Mimi CX
1129 Neujmina S
1133 Lugduna S
1139 Atami S MC
1140 Crimea S
1143 Odysseus D TRO
1144 Oda D HIL
1146 Biarmia X M0
1148 Rarahu S
1154 Astronomia FXU: C0 CYB
1162 Larissa P M0 HIL
1167 Dubiago D D0 CYB
1170 Siva S S0 PHO
1171 Rusthawelia P C0
1172 Aneas D D0 TRO
1173 Anchises P C0 TRO
1177 Gonnessia XFU C0 CYB
1180 Rita P HIL
1185 Nikko S
1186 Turnera S
1199 Geldonia CGTP:
1208 Troilus FCU C0 TRO
1210 Morosovia MU:
1212 Francette P M0 HIL
1215 Boyer S
1216 Askania S
1223 Neckar S
1224 Fantasia S
1235 Schorria CX: HUN
1236 Thais T D3
1241 Dysona PDC
1245 Calvinia S S0
1247 Memoria CXF
1249 Rutherfordia S
1251 Hedera E
1252 Celestia S
1256 Normannia D D0 HIL
1263 Varsavia X
1266 Tone P C0 CYB
1268 Libya P C0 HIL
1269 Rollandia D D0 HIL
1274 Delportia S
1275 Cimbria X M0
1277 Dolores C C0
1280 Baillauda X CYB
1284 Latvia T D3
1286 Banachiewicza S
1289 Kutaissi S
1306 Scythia S
1307 Cimmeria S
1310 Villigera S PHO
1314 Paula S
1317 Silvretta CX:
1326 Losaka CSU
1328 Devota X CYB
1329 Eliane S
1330 Spiridonia P
1331 Solvejg BC:
1336 Zeelandia S S0
1339 Desagneauxa S
1341 Edmee XB
1342 Brabantia X PHO
1345 Potomac X HIL
1350 Rosselia S
1355 Magoeba X HUN
1357 Khama XCU
1359 Prieska CX:
1362 Griqua CP GRI
1364 Safara —
1390 Abastumani P C0 CYB
1391 Carelia S
1392 Pierre DX
1401 Lavonne S
1415 Malautra S
1416 Renauxa S
1418 Fayeta S S0
1422 Stromgrenia S
1434 Margot S
1437 Diomedes DP TRO
1439 Vogtia XFU B2 HIL
1442 Corvina S
1445 Konkolya C
1449 Virtanen S
1453 Fennia S HUN
1456 Saldanha C:
1461 Jean-Jacques M M0
1467 Mashona GC C0 CYB
1474 Beira FX MC
1477 Bonsdorffia XU
1479 Inkeri XFU
1493 Sigrid F C0
1500 Jyvaskyla S
1504 Lappeenranta S
1508 Kemi BCF
1509 Esclangona S S0 HUN
1512 Oulu P M0 HIL
1529 Oterma P: HIL
1532 Inari S
1533 Saimaa S
1547 Nele TD
1556 Wingolfia XC M0 CYB
1564 Srbija X
1566 Icarus — APO
1567 Alikoski PU
1576 Fabiola BU B0
1578 Kirkwood D D1 HIL
1579 Herrick F C0 CYB
1580 Betulia C AMO
1581 Abanderada BCU B0
1583 Antilochus D D0 TRO
1584 Fuji S S0 PHO
1595 Tanga C:
1601 Patry S
1602 Indiana S
1604 Tombaugh XSCU D3
1606 Jekhovsky C C0
1615 Bardwell B C0
1619 Ueta S
1620 Geographos S APO
1621 Druzhba S
1625 The NORC C
1627 Ivar S AMO
1636 Porter S
1639 Bower C
1644 Rafita S
1645 Waterfield XDC
1648 Shajna S
1650 Heckmann F B1
1655 Comas Sola XFU
1656 Suomi S HUN
1657 Roemera S PHO
1658 Innes AS
1665 Gaby S
1669 Dagmar G:
1681 Steinmetz S
1685 Toro S APO
1691 Oort CU C0
1693 Hertzsprung CBU C0
1694 Kaiser GC
1700 Zvezdara X C0
1702 Kalahari D
1707 Chantal S
1711 Sandrine S
1717 Arlon S
1723 Klemola S
1724 Vladimir FBCU:: B0
1727 Mette S HUN
1740 Paavo Nurmi F
1746 Brouwer D HIL
1747 Wright AU: MC
1748 Mauderli D HIL
1750 Eckert S HUN
1754 Cunningham P C0 HIL
1755 Lorbach S
1765 Wrubel DX
1767 Lampland XC
1768 Appenzella F
1792 Reni C:
1794 Finsen C C0
1796 Riga XFCU C0 CYB
1815 Beethoven F C0
1827 Atkinson DU
1830 Pogson S
1842 Hynek S
1862 Apollo Q APO
1863 Antinous SU APO
1864 Daedalus SQ APO
1865 Cerberus S APO
1867 Deiphobus D D0 TRO
1902 Shaposhnikov X HIL
1911 Schubart P C0 HIL
1915 Quetzalcoatl SMU AMO
1916 Boreas S AMO
1919 Clemence X HUN
1920 Sarmiento X HUN
1931 1969 QB C
1943 Anteros S AMO
1952 Hesburgh CD:
1963 Bezovec C C0 PHO
1980 Tezcatlipoca SU AMO
1990 Pilcher S
2000 Herschel S PHO
2001 Einstein X HUN
2010 Chebyshev BU:
2035 Stearns E MC
2048 Dwornik E HUN
2050 Francis S PHO
2052 Tamriko S S0
2060 Chiron B
2061 Anza TCG: AMO
2062 Aten S ATE
2067 Aksnes P M0 HIL
2081 Sazava F B1
2083 Smither X HUN
2089 Cetacea S
2090 Mizuho S S0
2099 Opik S MC
2100 Ra-Shalom C ATE
2111 Tselina S S0
2131 Mayall S S0 MC
2134 Dennispalm DSU:
2139 Makharadze F
2156 Kate S S2
2196 Ellicott CFXU C0 CYB
2207 Antenor D D0 TRO
2208 Pushkin D D0 CYB
2212 Hephaistos SG APO
2223 Sarpedon DU TRO
2241 1979 WM D D0 TRO
2246 Bowell D D0 HIL
2260 Neoptolemus DTU: D1 TRO
2266 Tchaikovsky D D0 CYB
2272 1972 FA S HUN
2274 Ehrsson SG
2278 1953 GE FC
2279 Barto F
2311 El Leoncito D D0 CYB
2312 Duboshin D D0 HIL
2340 Hathor CSU ATE
2345 Fucik S S0
2357 Phereclos D D0 TRO
2363 Cebriones D TRO
2368 Beltrovata SQ AMO
2375 1975 AA D
2379 Heiskanen C C0
2405 Welch BCU: B3
2407 1973 DH C
2411 Zellner S
2430 Bruce Helin S PHO
2449 1978 GC E HUN
2491 1977 CB X HUN
2501 Lohja A
2510 Shandong S
2577 Litva EU HUN
2608 Seneca S AMO
2674 Pandarus D TRO
2735 Ellen SDU:: HUN
2744 Birgitta S MC
2760 Kacha X HIL
2791 Paradise SU PHO
2809 Vernadskij BFX
2830 Greenwich S PHO
2893 1975 QD D TRO
3102 1981 QA QRS AMO
3123 Dunham F
3124 Kansas CG
3169 Ostro TS HUN
3199 Nefertiti S AMO
3200 Phaethon F APO 5
3288 Seleucus S AMO
3551 1983 RD V AMO 6
3552 1983 SA D AMO 6
1975 EA CSU
1975 GB S
1975 U2 S 7
1977 VA XC
1978 CA S AMO
1979 VA CF APO
1980 WF QU APO
1982 XB S AMO
1984 BC D MC 6